Supporting Jamaican Deported Migrants and their Families

Short title

Supporting Jamaican Deported Migrants and their Families

Start date - End date

Wed, 09/30/2009 to Wed, 03/30/2011

Brief description of the initiative

The Project harnessed the capacities of deported migrants to contribute to Jamaican development, and, ensure the rights of deported returnees in Jamaica and the rights of families of imprisoned migrants.



Project number



146,780 Euros


JMDI, European Union

Partner country(ies)

United Kingdom

Main thematic areas


Focus area

Enhancing migrants' role in development through protection of their rights
Adopting a human rights-based approach to migration and development
Balancing the negative impact of brain drain by identifying and attracting the right human capital amongst migrants for development

First name

Ms. St. Rachel

Last name






Main objectives

The main objectives were: raising awareness of the developmental value of ensuring deported returnees have access to support in reintegration; research on the needs of women deportees; informing and educating deportees, employers and the Jamaican public of their rights; building the capacities of returnees to contribute to development through skills training and certification; protecting the human rights of children of deported migrants and migrants in prison overseas.



Main activities

The main activities were: garment skills training and certification for 25 women; support to 20 children; awareness-raising media campaign; workshops in schools with deported returnees; action research to identify 75 deportees' needs.

Main beneficiaries

The main beneficiaries were: female deported returnees and children of imprisoned migrants.

Project Documents

  • Introduction


    There are no official, express legal restrictions on the rights of deported persons in Jamaica. Nor are there any obligations placed on deported persons to disclose to the general public their status as a “deportee” or their criminal convictions abroad. Deported persons are free to seek employment and education, at all levels, and are also able to vote and participate freely in the national and local government. So what is the problem that ‘deportees’ voice so readily and often? The unofficial restrictions that exist to disrupt the lives of these deported persons, the “unofficial policy,” the stigma, is what they are mercilessly affected by. The question thus becomes, how does Jamaica, as a nation, deal with the unofficial policy of ostracizing deported persons?


    By:      Lisa-Marie Elliott

               Volunteer Attorney

               Jamaicans for Justice

               2 Fagan Avenue

                Kingston 8

  • A call has been made for the establishment of a national organization to address the needs and issues of deported migrants in Jamaica (...)

  • The establishment of this national organization to address the needs and issues of deported migrants in Jamaica was spawned by the JMDI project [J-105] Supporting Jamaican Deported Migrants and their Families, in particular a series of rights workshops with recently deported persons held in the context of the project.

    Please find the programme below.


Three women who served time in prisons in the United Kingdom (UK) and have since returned to Jamaica to pick up the pieces of their lives, shared their experiences with the Sunday Observer on condition that the newspaper protect their identities. Here are their stories:

WHEN she left her dilapidated one-room wooden house in St Catherine for the UK in 2001, she was looking for a way out of poverty. She had stocked enough food to last her three children five days. That was how long her trip to London should have lasted.


The desperate mom had left her five-year-old daughter and 10-year-old son in the care of their 14-year-old sister until she could get back with the £1,500 she had been promised to smuggle 720 grammes of cocaine into Britain.

This money could buy her and her three children several weeks' supply of food and some new clothes. It could also keep the children in school for a couple months. Against this background, the unemployed mom needed very little encouragement to ingest about 86 pellets of cocaine wrapped in condoms. If she made it through customs, she would pass these out later and hand them over to the dealer for the UK drug market.

But her five-day trip turned into a seven-year nightmare after she was arrested with the cocaine at Heathrow Airport in London. The woman was subsequently sentenced and locked away at HM Prison Morton Hall in Lincolnshire, home to more than 50 Jamaican prisoners at the time.

She was one of 98 women the UK police said they caught during the first eight months of 2001 attempting to leave Gatwick and Heathrow airports with drugs concealed inside their body cavities or luggage.

Debbie, 33, and Melissa, 31, also served time in UK prisons for cocaine. Their lives were not that different from this desperate mom, who still lives in fear of being "found" by the "people" who had given her the drugs to take to the UK almost 10 years ago. In fact, all three women shared a common bond. They were unemployed and had little or no skills, making them easy prey for the drug dons.

On a Friday, Debbie and Melissa shared their stories with the Sunday Observer at the Kingston office of Hibiscus Jamaica.

Debbie was sentenced to three years in 2002 for "importation of cocaine", but served only half that time. The mother of two children, aged nine and 13, said at the time she was desperate and wanted to secure a future for her children.

"Honestly speaking, I did need the money. I am from a poor family, and I used to do a little hustling. I used to go to my mom's stall and help her sell, but this could not take care of the two children, plus the rent, food and clothes," she said, adding, "I wanted better for myself and my children."

She therefore jumped at the promised chance of earning £3,500 to transport about half-a-kilo of cocaine into the UK.

"Somebody told me about this man who could make me go to England, and pay me money, and I went to him," she recalled. She had planned to use the money to purchase "an old car" to "start a little business" to assist her family. "I was going to use the car to run taxi to make some money, even though it would have been an illegal taxi," she said candidly.

She was given the option of swallowing the cocaine, but decided against it. "I could not swallow, and so they put it inside the suitcase (the handle)," she continued.

This was the first time Debbie was travelling, and she had left the children with family members, thinking she would only be gone "for about a month".

But when she got to London, she was stopped and searched by immigration at Heathrow. "The woman asked me to strip and squat, but they did not find anything. Then the man told her it was in the suitcase because the dog had sniffed it out," she said.

Recalling her time in prison, Debbie told the Sunday Observer that it was "tough" and that she was "scared" at first and missed her children terribly. "But I would write to them or call them as often as I could. I would also download educational stuff off the Internet and mail it to them," she explained.

During that period, she also got a chance to further her education, studying computer, Mathematics and English. "I also got a lot of support from the church (prison ministry); different denominations. The church helped me to survive," Debbie admitted.

She spent three months at Foston Hall and more than a year at Morton Hall before she was deported to Jamaica.

But even though Debbie tried to maintain contact with her children, she said the hardest part was returning home to find that she was a stranger to her children, particularly her daughter.

"She was a baby when I left, so when I came home she asked, 'who is this person?' She did not know me, and I felt very bad. She cried, and did not want to stay with me and I felt guilty, like I had done her wrong," Debbie said, her voice trailing off.

In retrospect, Debbie said she would have made different choices had she stopped to think about the consequences of smuggling drugs.

"My imprisonment had a great impact on the kids, and I had to work really hard to win back that love -- that bond that we once had," she said. "It is not worth it. I would say to any woman contemplating this: don't do it! It is not good, and the drug dealers lie; they cannot be trusted. They will use you and once you get caught, there will be no one there to help you."

Melissa knows all too well how it feels to be "used by drug dealers" and then discarded at will. She told the Sunday Observer that she was "set up".

"It was a big, big set-up," she said. According to Melissa, after she agreed to swallow "a couple pellets" of cocaine and transported the larger portion in a suitcase on a trip to the UK in exchange for cash, "somebody else pushed through the suitcase".

She explained: "When I got to Heathrow, I could not find the suitcase, and this made Immigration suspicious. It did look a way; here I was arriving for a visit without a suitcase. But what happened was that they got somebody else to push through the suitcase and left me hanging," she said.

Melissa said that after a search failed to turn up the suitcase, she was taken into a room and questioned. "They then told me that if I had swallowed the drug that I would die, and I got scared as I did not know that. Nobody had told me that," Melissa said. She "passed out" the portion of cocaine that she had ingested and was subsequently sentenced to three-and-a-half years in prison, but she only served half that time.

Like Debbie, the former hairdresser said she rued the day she agreed to transport drugs to the UK.

"Life was tough, and I was struggling, but that decision turned into the worst nightmare of my life," Melissa said. "And to make matters worse, my little boy did not know me when I came home. He ran from me. You know how dat mek mi feel, yuh own pickney run from you?" She has three children, aged 12, 10 and three. The last one was born after she returned to Jamaica.

Her advice to women: "This is not a good road, don't let nobody fool you."

Today, the women still struggle to make ends meet, but they told the Sunday Observer that never again will they fall prey to "these evil drug dons".

Debbie is still unemployed and doing a little "hustling, selling slippers, Scotch-brite, steel wool and panties".

"I have applied for several jobs since I came back, but I can't seem to find any," she said. "I need a job. I have computer skills and I am willing to work."

Her dream is to own a house and further her studies in computers so that she can support herself and her children.

Meanwhile, Melissa, who operates a small grocery store, told the Sunday Observer that "business gone down since is me one". She is hoping that she can get some assistance to restock supplies.

The women get "some support" from Hibiscus Jamaica, but wish there were some additional programmes that would allow them to realise their dreams.

Read more:


Sunday, March 07, 2010

TWENTY children of incarcerated or deported Jamaican migrants will shortly be selected to receive financial aid and other benefits under a European Union and United Nations Development Programme-funded project.

The project, dubbed Supporting Jamaican Deported Migrants and their Families, was launched last October.

"Round about the next two weeks or so, the initial activities launched to identify 20 children who will be benefiting from financial grants, as well as referrals to agencies in the case of those who need that (will get under way)," project consultant St Rachel Ustanny told the Sunday Observer. "The parents would either be in prisons in the UK (United Kingdom) or elsewhere, or they would (already) have been deported to Jamaica," Ustanny said.

In addition to protecting the human rights of children of deported migrants and migrants who are still incarcerated in other countries, the project has as its objectives:

* to raise awareness about the development value of ensuring that deported migrants are apart of nation-building;

* to educate deported migrants about their rights;

* to conduct research to identify the needs of deported migrants as they attempt to reintegrate and resettle in Jamaica; and

* to inform and educate students about the issues related to trafficking, illegal migration and deportation.

It kicked off on October 29 last year with a sensitisation workshop that targeted 30 women, 22 of whom later qualified for the skills training component of the project.

"The specific skill is garment construction," explained Ustanny, adding that the women are trained at the Garmex Complex at Marcus Garvey Drive.

The project, which is being implemented by Hibiscus Jamaica and the University of the West Indies, Mona, will run for 18 months.

The UWI component of the project is the research, which is being spearheaded by criminologist Professor Bernard Headley.

"That component targets 75 newly deported migrants. That group will basically be a mix of males and females. Professor Headley is doing the final planning to kick off the first workshop by mid to late March," noted Ustanny.

"He seeks to use it (the workshop) as a data-gathering exercise as well as an empowerment exercise. So there are deported migrants who are built into that portion of the project who will assist with the logistical work for the research assignment, and there are deported migrants who will be involved as the target group."

The aim, the project consultant said, is to gather "some fundamental information which will inform the work with deportees in Jamaica".

"Hibiscus thinks this research is critical so that the programmes are in line with the needs of the deported migrants," Ustanny told the Sunday Observer.

The research goals mirror those of the overall project, notably:

* to inform and teach deported migrants about their rights;

* to hear and discuss specific resettlement needs and challenges;

* to expose deported migrants to economic opportunities in Jamaica; and

* to guide deported migrants through a set of possible actions and strategies for coping with challenges.

The project has been granted Euro 146,780. Of that sum, the Institute of Sustainable Development of the UWI has been allotted Euro 46,800. Hibiscus Jamaica has been granted Euro 99,980 to conduct the developmental component of the project.

The project, Ustanny said, "is also set to purchase sewing machines" to allow the trained women to engage in income-generating activites.

"There is also the intention to have a marketing component to be conducted by Hibiscus Jamaica to get the items made sold in the Jamaican market."

Read more:


By Cassandra Brenton, Associate Editor

Sunday, November 21, 2010

WOMEN now account for less than 15 per cent of the 942 Jamaicans currently being fed, clothed and educated at the expense of British taxpayers who shell out millions annually to rehabilitate them.

Olga Heaven, director of Hibiscus — the Female Prisoners Welfare Project (FPWP) that advocates the rights of foreign nationals in UK prisons and assists deported women — told the Sunday Observer from her London office recently that a little more than 100 Jamaican women are serving time in about 10 facilities in that country. Of this number, about 50 per cent were doing time for drug-related offences. The other women, the FPWP Hibiscus founder said, were there for offences such as working illegally, overstaying their time in the UK, among other crimes.


"The numbers have gone down drastically," Heaven said. "In 2005 we had well over 600 (Jamaican) women in prison, but now that number is very low; very low," she gushed.

In fact, she told the Sunday Observer that within the last six months there had been "only four" new drug arrests, one of which was for cannabis.

This "drastic" reduction in the female prison population in the UK presents a far different picture from what obtained several years ago. During the late 1990s, for instance, it was estimated that one in 10 Jamaican passengers on flights to the UK were drug traffickers. The problem escalated during 2001 as more Jamaican women joined their male counterparts and boarded daily flights to Britain carrying their deadly portions dangerously tucked away inside their stomachs and other body cavities. They were called "drug mules" or "swallowers".

As the Jamaican and British authorities stepped up surveillance at the affected airports during 2001, the prison population grew in both countries. During the first eight months of 2001, UK police arrested 226 Jamaicans, including 98 women as they reportedly attempted to enter the country through Gatwick and Heathrow airports with drugs. Over that same period, the Jamaican police arrested 444 British-bound male and female traffickers.

By the end of 2003 there were approximately 700 Jamaican women serving time in UK prisons for drugs. In Britain, the Home Office said Jamaicans accounted for nearly half of the prisoners in most of Britain's women's facilities.

Today, although Jamaicans are still among the largest groups of foreign national prisoners, there is much

to "celebrate".

"Jamaica needs to celebrate the fact that the number of women serving time for drugs has declined drastically," Heaven emphasised.

"We should also celebrate the fact Jamaica is no big thing in the drug trade anymore," she told the Sunday Observer.

Heaven attributes the decline in numbers to her organisation's role in educating women about the dangers of smuggling drugs. The group had in fact undertaken a number of radio, television and newspaper campaigns in Jamaica to this end. Hibiscus also held a number of conferences locally in keeping with its thrust to keep women away from drug kingpins and out of UK prisons.

"The relevance of the Eva Goes to Foreign campaign is paying off. The messages have worked well as a deterrent," Heaven explained. This campaign, launched in Jamaica in 2002, and which is heavily promoted by FPWP Hibiscus Jamaica, is designed to increase awareness about the dangers and consequences of smuggling drugs.

The campaign utilises posters and comic strips to chronicle the life and struggles of a female drug smuggler (Eva) who was sentenced to 14 years in a UK prison.

But Heaven cautioned that although the number of arrests continued to taper, Jamaica should not become complacent. "Jamaica needs to keep the momentum going. It is important to keep encouraging women and educating the children about the dangers of carrying drugs," she said.

The decrease may also be attributed to improvements in Jamaica's surveillance capabilities and tightened security at Jamaica's two main airports in Kingston and Montego Bay. The introduction of visa controls in 2003 as well as Operation Airbridge — the joint effort by Jamaican and British law enforcement officials forged in June 2002 to tackle the growing drug trade — were also contributing factors. The latter resulted in tighter security at Jamaica's main ports of entry as well as the installation of modern drug detection equipment. The British Government insisted that the visa system was aimed at cracking down on illegal immigrants, but critics said was intended to put a dent in drug and gun-related crimes.

Operation Airbridge was credited with nabbing a large number of Jamaica's drug mules before they made it into the UK. For example, Jamaica's Constabulary Communication Network (CCN), the communications arm of the JCF, said that between June 2002 and January 2005, 1,132 people were held at Jamaican airports with drugs; 332 of them were foreign nationals. The police was, however, unable to provide a breakdown of the number of females included in this figure. Meanwhile, according to data from the UK's Home Office, in the first year after Operation Airbridge was launched, 185 drug traffickers were arrested at Heathrow and Gatwick, compared to 730 the previous year.

Additionally, Jamaica's prison population has dwindled over the years as more persons complete their sentences and take up the UK's controversial 2006 cash incentive offer (under its Facilitated Returns Scheme) to return home.

But although the figures have been trending down, this is apparently cold comfort to UK officials who recently indicated that the large number of foreign nationals being held at Her Majesty's leisure was putting a financial strain on that country's already stretched budget. In 2006, a Home Office representative was quoted as saying that the average annual cost to the UK for keeping a prisoner was £37,000. Last week, the Daily Mail put that figure at around £38,000. According to the Telegraph and Mail Online, of the approximately 85,000 prisoners in England and Wales, around 11,000 were from overseas. Jamaicans accounted for the largest group of foreign nationals at 942, followed by Nigeria with 727 and the Irish Republic with 681.

Two weeks ago Jamaica initiated discussions with local British officials after the Daily Mail reported that British Prime Minister David Cameron planned to pursue a cost-cutting initiative that would see thousands of these foreign prisoners being sent back home to complete their sentences.

In October, changes were made to that country's controversial Facilitated Returns Scheme, which offers cash to prisoners if they agreed not to fight deportation. Previously, they were offered £500 in cash and up to £4,500 "in kind" (to be invested in small businesses or go towards training). However, under the new scheme, they are now being offered up to £1,500, "the majority of which should be spent on reintegration," the Telegraph reported.

British Immigration Minister Damian Green, was quoted on the Home Office website as saying that it was "a practical solution" that would save British taxpayers money "in the long run".

"Every day that a foreign national is held in prison costs the taxpayer money — that is why I want to see them removed from the UK at the earliest opportunity," said Green.

Read more:

By KIMMO MATTHEWS, Observer staff reporter,

Thursday, September 16, 2010

HIBISCUS Jamaica, an organisation which caters to the needs of deported women, this morning fully opened its new premises located at West Avenue in Kingston.

"The new facility will provide emergency accommodation for female deported migrants," said St Rachael Ustanny, representative of Hibiscus Jamaica Ltd.

The launch was made possible by the Ministry of National Security and the British High Commission, which has also provided part funding for aspects of the programme.

Ustanny said that at the West Avenue facility, women will be allowed to stay up to 30 days and while there, will be introduced to life learning programmes that will help them re-integrate in the society.

Hibiscus Jamaica was founded in 1993. It works with deported women to improve their resettlement and reintegration opportunities.

Read more:

Published: Friday | September 17, 2010

Laura Redpath, Senior Gleaner Writer

Although it was implemented to assist women who were deported with socialisation and other welfare issues, the Female Prisoners Welfare Project (FPWP) in Jamaica has helped more children than actual women since the start of the year.

Hibiscus Jamaica is a chip off the Hibiscus London block and operates within the framework of the FPWP.

It has helped 41 women, 21 of whom were part of a pilot project to be certified in new skills such as drapery making.

Fifty children of the women who have dealt with deportation were guided through the back-to-school finances in terms of books, fees, uniforms and school supplies.

It was a sweet moment for Lianne, whose children benefited from the programme, when she arrived at the new Hibiscus location in downtown Kingston yesterday.

"These people are my people," she said, placing her hand on her chest.

"I got a lot of help for my kids for back to school. They got clothes and monetary assistance," she told The Gleaner.


Lianne was arrested for drug trafficking in 2002 and since being back in Jamaica, she has started a cookshop and her own sewing business where she designs and sews clothes.

St Rachel Ustanny, executive director of Hibiscus Jamaica, said many of the children who are helped come from single-parent families where the mother is the breadwinner.

She noted that children sometimes are left to take up leadership within the family, at times turning to violent behaviour and drugs.

"They are left targeted," she said. "Children have been the priority, in terms of assistance, as their mothers are in no capacity to provide."

Since Hibiscus Jamaica was established seven years ago, approximately 500 women have walked through its doors seeking welfare and resocialisation assistance.

A total of 1,117 Jamaican women were deported between 2006 and 2009, and despite lacking resources to care for that number of women, Ustanny is encouraging women to connect with the organisation.

"We would want more women to connect so we can assess the situation. We also want extended families to connect as children are also affected."

According to a release from Hibiscus, Jamaica has the highest ratio of deported migrants to overall population in the world and Jamaican women make up over 70 per cent of foreign nationals in United Kingdom prisons.

Real name withheld.

Published: Sunday Gleaner| December 19, 2010

Jason Wynter, more popularly known as Jason the Clown, poses for this young girl's camera while painting the face one of the children who turned out at the Hibiscus Jamaica Christmas Treat for the children in a central Kingston community last Friday. - Ricardo Makyn/Staff Photographer

More than 120 children were treated to food, games, gifts, and goodies courtesy of a Christmas fête facilitated by Hibiscus Jamaica Limited. The youngsters were largely from inner-city communities across Kingston, Jamaica. Some of them were children of deported migrant women. The fête was held last Friday at the offices of Hibiscus Jamaica Ltd, 13 West Avenue, Kingston 4.

The event was part of Hibiscus Jamaica's effort to foster positive development among the children of deported migrants and to provide opportunities for their general acceptance by and normalisation in the society.

The Female Prisoner Welfare Project (FPWP) Hibiscus Jamaica was founded in 1993. It works with deported migrant women and their children to improve resettlement and reintegration opportunities.

The event was made possible through the support of the British High Commission, Food For the Poor, Hibiscus London, the Ministry of National Security, the European Union, and the United Nations Development Programme.

Hibiscus Jamaica also provides ongoing assistance to the children of incarcerated women to minimise the social, psychological, and physical impact of the incarcera-tion of their mothers in the United Kingdom for drug-trafficking and other offences.

Children are assisted through interventions that attend to their emotional, physical, psychological, and educational needs, as well as their general welfare.

The mission of FPWP Hibiscus Jamaica is to provide the United Kingdom judicial system with information regarding the socio-economic status of Jamaican women incarcerated for drug-trafficking offences.

The deported migrant population in Jamaica is in a precarious position, more so as the number of new deportees grows exponen-tially. The reality is that many deported migrants are generally despised and discriminated against, particularly in key life-sustaining areas like housing and employment.

Jamaica has a significantly high proportion of female deported migrants, most of whom were incarcerated overseas for couriering drugs during migration. Many of these women are mothers whose children are left without a main caregiver while they are imprisoned. They also often return to graver circumstances than they had left, with little prospect of employment and few avenues to turn to for advice or resettlement and reintegration after serving long sentences abroad.

WHEN Coleen Dyer was deported to Jamaica from the United Kingdom in 2004, she felt her life had hit rock bottom. But on July 28, the 33-year-old mother of four was feeling good about herself again.

Armed with a certificate from the HEART/NTA Garmex Academy, the Spanish Town resident was making plans to sell pillows and drapes in different parts of the island.

She was among 21 women deported from the United Kingdom and the United States who graduated from a six-month course in garment and drapery production, soft furnishing, interior decorating, and floral arrangement, as well as marketing and business development.

"I feel wonderful and important to know that at my age I can go back to school and graduate. I'm feeling good," Dyer said, a smile creeping across her face.

No stranger to sewing, the course was a refresher for Dyer, who was especially grateful for what she learned about running a small business.

"I plan to sell out in the country (rural Jamaica) ," she said of her drapes and pillows.

The graduation of the participants in the Hibiscus Jamaica Joint Migration and Development Initiative project was held at the Garmex Academy in Kingston on Wednesday.

St Rachel Ustanny, programme manager of Hibiscus Jamaica, a non-government organisation dedicated to the resettlement and reintegration of deported female migrants mainly from the UK, told Career & Education that the project was funded with a grant, valued at approximately Euro 99,000, from the European Union.

She said during the project, which runs from October 2009 to March 2011, the progress of the women will be monitored in terms of their use of their new skills and supporting their children. Not all the women were deported for smuggling drugs, as some had overstayed their time in the UK, Ustanny noted.

Helen Jenkinson, who represented the European Union, congratulated the graduates and said practical projects represented the way forward for the women to rebuild their lives and contribute to the society. She hoped that the course would become a model for the Caribbean region. She also called on the private sector and other donors to assist the women with sewing machines.

Guest speaker at the function, poet and motivational speaker Mutabaruka told the graduates that they were in good company in that Jamaica's first national hero Marcus Garvey was himself deported from the US for mail fraud. He urged the women to adopt Garvey's philosophy to have confidence in themselves in order to succeed. However, he noted that jobs were hard to come by, even for recent university graduates.

"Nothin nuh out deh. I wouldn't suggest that everyone going to get place (in a job). This is an opportunity to say 'what idea can I develop to create a business for myself?' ," Mutabaruka said.

Meanwhile, an upbeat Dyer had a word of advice to women in similar difficult situations.

"Don't hold back yourself. Look to the future because it's not the end of the world. You can go to school and get a skill to become independent. Do it for yourself, not for others ," she said.

There are more than 100 Jamaican women incarcerated in UK prisons for drug offenses, but many others are awaiting deportation for lesser offences.

Migration for working is option-less obligation for majority of the migrant workers. You can imagine by the fact that one of the major economic backbone of the developing countries like some of the South Asian or African Countries are neither the industry nor the business but remittance. Yes, it is due to the huge number of unemployed population.

In these countries, the person who goes out of the country is very crucial for the each family that s/he comes from. Rest of the family members (such as wife, children, old parents etc.) depends solely upon that person. If any unfortunate incident (like fatal disease or the diseases like AIDs etc, jailed or untimely returned) happens to the person, his/her family can’t afford it. Because, the entire future of the family depends on it, such is the family structure and socio-economic structure of these nations.

Jamaica as well, having about 13% unemployment rate, also depends on foreign income as well. Having 3 million Jamaican living abroad, issues or problems related to migrant workers can’t be ignored. Along with it, the problems and adjustment of returnee migrants are also equally essential to deal with.

Government doesn’t include them in its policies or preferences for their rights, opportunities or other social securities which otherwise they would get. So, they are vulnerable of deprivation from many life chances.

In such situation proper research, identification of core problems, recommendation of the relevant/practical solution to the stake holders.

Anyways, the approach of this project to mainstreaming the deported returnees by helping them to readjust socially-and-economically is highly admirable, particularly the women and children. Just the last year, according to a North American news, about 1268 Jamaican migrants were deported from USA. May heaven bless your effort?