E-discussion on Mainstreaming Migration into Local Policy Planning

English

Introductory text

The Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI) has carried out an e-discussion on Mainstreaming Migration into Local Policy Planning, inviting local actors around the globe to share their experience and views on mainstreaming migration into local development planning. The results of this e-discussion are presented below in a consolidated response gathering together the contributions of M&D practitioners from Local and Regional Authorities (LRAs), national and international migration experts, civil society actors and more from across Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Philippines, Senegal and South Africa. This e-discussion comes within the framework of the JMDI and the International Organization for Migration’s (IOM) partnership in developing a White Paper on Mainstreaming Migration into Local Development Planning. Through this White Paper, a comparative study is being carried out on what has already been done, or is currently being done, to mainstream migration into local development planning to date, gathering good practices and lessons learnt. In doing so, the JMDI and IOM aim to further the global understanding of the local dimension of migration and development (M&D).

You can access the PDF version of the consolidated reply here (ENFRES). Please see the individual responses below.

 

It is now globally recognized that migration and development are intrinsically linked and that, when well-managed, it is possible to mitigate the negative and harness the positive effects that migration can have on development and that development can have on migration. However, the nature of migration, and the context in which it takes place, are extremely varied and complex, making it important that policymakers intervene to manage this context and allow for this potential to be seized. In this sense and given the multifaceted nature of the inter-relationship between migration and development, any such intervention is best undertaken in a systematic and comprehensive way.

The most appropriate way to ensure this systematic approach is to mainstream M&D issues directly into policy planning. This process can be described as the process of assessing the implications of migration on any action planned in a development strategy. By taking such an approach, it allows migration to be embedded into the broader development strategy, fostering a coherent approach rather than piecemeal and uncoordinated actions. Indeed, such an approach promotes enhanced coordination among government departments as well as with other relevant actors, leading to more successful policies.

Although mainstreaming processes are now mainly addressed at the national level, their translation and application at the local level is a crucial aspect in view of maximizing the potential of the migration and local development nexus. This is particularly important given that it is local and regional authorities (LRAs) that find themselves at the forefront of dealing with the needs, rights and concerns of migrants within the scope of the various services they provide for the development of the whole community. This necessarily implies the need to mainstream migration as a cross-cutting issue into legislation, policies and programmes at all levels (local, regional and national) and across all sectors e.g. access to housing, education, social security etc. It also means integrating M&D concerns at all stages of policy planning, including design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. Essentially, M&D needs to become institutionalized at all governmental levels where the consideration of migration issues becomes standard practice or normalized within local government policy planning.

 

Original query

Based on the above context, the JMDI and the IOM invited all actors involved in mainstreaming migration into local development planning to respond to the below questions:

  1. What does mainstreaming migration into local policy planning mean to you?

  2. How would you describe the relationship between the cross-cutting approach to M&D and the level and process of decentralisation of the state? Within this context, what is the role of decentralized cooperation processes and actors and how can these three elements be reconciled? 

  3. What are the key measures that are necessary to successfully institutionalise migration into local planning and how can these be implemented? What are the challenges and opportunities associated with these measures?

  4. What examples are there of successful and local authority-led initiatives which aim to institutionalize migration into the local agenda. Have they been replicated in other territories and what were the results? To what extent are these initiatives linked to and in line with regional and/or national development plans and is this a success factor?  What measures and practices could be adopted by local authorities in order to increase the institutionalisation, replicability and success of these initiatives?

 

Summary of responses

Question 1: What does mainstreaming migration into local policy planning mean to you?

Firstly, respondents pointed out that in order to consider the concept of mainstreaming migration into local policy planning, a clear recognition of the inequality that migratory processes generate given the lack of adequate policies is needed within the local institution in question. Through this recognition, migrants are therefore automatically seen as equal parts of society, going beyond nationalities, and who therefore should be treated as citizens and seen as rights holders and development actors.

Mainstreaming migration into local policy planning is therefore a reaction at the local governance level to these inequalities that are produced in a bid to mitigate them and promote equal rights,  social cohesion and subsequently local development in a territory. In order to do this, respondents concluded that it is necessary to include migration issues within all phases of local policy planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Examples provided to illustrate this include the addition of migration-related provisions into local development plans and annual investment programming; building or strengthening local migration institutions or structures and expanding local programmes and services to include migrants. 

By all phases of local policy planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation, this means ensuring that migration issues are included across all sectors and policies, particularly those that are most important with regards to migrants’ well-being and the ability to integrate and contribute to their local communities e.g. labour, health, education, public security, housing etc. It is also therefore necessary to analyse how all policies affect migration and development and vice versa.

In light of this multi-sector approach, it is also therefore very much necessary to have a multi-stakeholder approach that cuts across all sectors and includes LRAs, migrants, migrant associations, civil society, academia, private sector, financial institutions, trade unions, international organisations etc. Indeed, all actors have a role to play and each its added value in terms of what it can bring to M&D mainstreaming and interventions. While local authorities are essentially responsible for such mainstreaming and consequent M&D actions, they should also assess to what extent they are able to provide for migrants and where other actors can play a supporting role. Being well placed at the local level to bring these actors together and assess these needs and roles, mainstreaming migration into local policy planning therefore also necessitates coordination by LRAs between all of these sectors and stakeholders in a coherent manner in order to truly ensure that migration is harnessed for local development.

Yet it is not enough for LRAs simply to coordinate and assign roles among all these key actors. For this to work, there must be a participatory approach to mainstreaming in the first place, which takes into account the opinions, needs, expertise and added value of the various stakeholders in play and allows them to continuously interact with policy planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. While the inclusion of all stakeholders implicitly implies that migrants would be one of these actors, almost all contibutors also made a specific reference to the key role of migrants themselves and the need to ensure their participation in all aspects of local policy planning. Only by doing this will policies actually respond to the realities and needs of migrants. The City of Legazpi in the Philippines provided a specific example of how this can be achieved whereby the Council has made some representatives of migrants and migrant associations members of the council Legazpi City Planning and Development Council (LCPDC). Through this, the migrant sector is given the opportunity to submit their plans and programs and actively participate in the development planning process and ensure that the programs/projects/services related to migration will be presented to the committee for its adoption, inclusion and integration in the Social Development Plans and in the City’s Annual Investment Plan and the Medium Term Public Investment Plan.

Most respondents also highlighted that mainsteaming migration into local development planning also means providing migrants and their associations with resources and services which will allow migrants to integrate, associate and become empowered so that they are able to create and sustain a common voice that is able to navegate public policy spaces and feed into local policy planning.

Two contributors from Ecuador then warned of the dangers involved in mainstreaming actions whereby it is taken for granted that migration is implicitly mainstreamed and thus the concept and actions involved can become so vague and transversal that no specific actions or objectives are achieved. To mitigate this, specific budgets and units dedicated to this are essential, as are specific M&D related initiatives and policies while still ensuring mainstreaming is carried across across all other policy planning.

Finally, a final key consideration by the contributors affirmed that for local authorities to lead this process, it is necessary that their competencies and role is recognized at the local, national and international levels. Indeed, mainstreaming migration into local policy planning means recognizing that migration and development is the responsibility of all, and particularly that of local actors who are at the forefront of managing migratory phenomena and local policy processes. Mainstreaming migration into local policy planning therefore also means securing the commitment of local governments to migration issues and ensuring their ownership over such processes.

 

Question 2: How would you describe the relationship between the cross-cutting approach to M&D and the level and process of decentralization of the state? Within this context, what is the role of decentralized cooperation processes and actors and how can these three elements be reconciled?  

In response to this question, the majority of contributors held to the fact that by assuming a mainstreaming approach to local policy planning, LRAs must tackle migration within the confines of the competencies and functions assigned to them. It is clear therefore, that the higher the level of decentralization, the more room and opportunities there are for LRAs to act in response to migration. It was also noted that in countries that are highly centralized, LRAs may still find themselves at the forefront of tackling the challenges and opportunities of migration but that a lack of legal, technical and financial support from the national level together with a requirement of strong upward accountability and overlapping institutional mandates may limit their effectiveness.

Moreover, the great majority of contributors recognized the added value of decentralisation processes since LRAs are closer to their constituencies, possess better understanding of the needs of their communities and are more able to reach out and collectively pull actors and information together to feed into policy planning. In this sense, decentralization processes also allow for more enhanced participation of all local actors which means that efforts will respond more accurately to needs, making policy design and implementation more effective.

Builing on the above, the instrinsic linkages between migration, decentralization and decentralized cooperation were also clearly evidenced. Given that LRAs tend not to hold any competencies in migration, with this being dealt with more traditionally at the national level, decentralized cooperation partnerships therefore provide an excellent opportunity to share lessons learned and good practices among LRAs. In other words, such frameworks allow for capacity building in a spirit of mutual support among equals. One contributor also pointed out that it is often migrants and diasporas themselves that initiate decentralized cooperation partnerships through their development initiatives, business creation and investment actions though others added that it was important to ensure that such decentralized cooperation frameworks were sealed with agreements between both LRAs and not directly with diaspora associations. This ensures the sustainability, ownership and commitment of both LRAs. Moreover, it guarantees that policies truly respond to official local development processes and not only what interests migrant associations or responds to what they believe is needed in any given territory.

 

Question 3: What are the key measures that are necessary to successfully institutionalise migration into local planning and how can these be implemented? What are the challenges and opportunities associated with these measures?

There was a general consensus among all contributors that first and foremost, there is a clear need to have accurate migration data to allow for a sound understanding of the migratory context and to facilitate outreach by mapping migrants and their associations. Only by understanding the migratory context and having quantitative and qualitative aggregated data can an effective policy response be envisaged. However, almost all contributors also affirmed that acquiring accurate data is one of the most important challenges when it comes to mainstreaming migration into local policy planning. To mitigate these challenges, acquiring support and data from a wide array of actors is necessary. It may also be necessary for LRAs to provide funding and support to such research entities to be able to carry out in-depth research.

Very much linked with the above was the clear need to also carry out a diagnostic of migrants’ and/or diaspora’s needs, capitals and ideas once they have been mapped. The main aspects of such diagnostics were identified as: analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the territory in relation to what services migrants have access to and any rights violations; identifying development and economic opportunities; and analyzing to what extent the LRA in question can provide for these needs and where it cannot. The need for diagnostics was based on the clear idea that without an understanding of the core reasons leading to migrants’ not having access to the same opportunities and services as other members of the community, any plan or action would likely fail given that it will not adequately address these needs. An example of a lesson learned was provided from Senegal where one Regional Development Agency had established migrant information points to answer questions about migration and to provide them with advice and guidance regarding their social and economic integration. However, 90% of migrants’ questions were related to funding or banking sectors yet the AFD had gathered little information on banking organizations and funding programmes, rendering the offices less effective in responding to the migrants’ needs. Had a diagnostic been carried out, this could have allowed the ARD to be better prepared and able to respond to these needs.  Both within the process of carrying out a diagnostic as well as throughout the whole mainstreaming process, the crucial issue of ensuring the active participation of migrants at all stages of policy processes was reiterated. Examples of this included setting up committees or working groups that bring together migrants, their associations, civil society and local government; linking up to returnees or facilitating temporary return programmes to tap into knowledge; and LRA twinning partnerships where dialogue and knowledge exchange between territories can be facilitated.

Contributors also added that, building on the data analysis and diagnostic, it was necessary to carry out a stakeholder analysis to identify all key stakeholders that should be involved in the process and who may not necessarily already be involved. With regards to migrants and their associations, some contributors also suggested that it was helpful to identify trustworthy figures, networks and associations that could bring a credible representation of migrants’ needs to the policy dialogue table.

Upon identifying the relevant stakeholders, it was highlighted that it may be necessary to ensure their awareness of migration and development issues as well as their commitment to the mainstreaming process with ensuring commitment and political will also being identified as some of the most common obstacles experienced within efforts to mainstreamin migration into local policy planning. For this reason, contributors highlighted the importance of carrying out awareness raising and lobbying activities to ensure that all actors are fully aware and understand the specific migration and development issues at hand, as well as the need for and added value of the mainstreaming process. This will then ensure that support for and commitment to the process will be higher.

A further related difficulty resides in the need to also encourage understanding and social cohesion among the people of the territory itself to break the myths surrounding migration and mitigate social tensions and xenophobia. One example of how to do this is ensuring that the focus on migrants is framed within a development and opportunities perspective and not as a humanitarian or charitable cause. In other word, this means highlighting and banking on the positive aspects of migration and its potential for local development. Contributors from the Philippines gave advice on how to support this process through the identification of a migration ‘leader’ or ‘champion’ who is visible in the public eye and who can advocate and promote the migration and development agenda. Based on the Philippine experience, these champions could be local beaucrats, as in the case of Naga and Legazpi City, or a member of the national government agency, as in the case of Tabaco City.  They can also be a former migrant who came back to his or her hometown and has started a successful business, as in the case of the vice chair of the Bicol Regional Committee on Migration and Development.

Another crucial element to ensuring a successful mainstreaming process is to provide capacity building and space for knowledge exchange for LRAs, other local actors as well as for migrants and their associations. Capacity building can be on such areas as how to gather migration data, on the linkages between migration and development, on the specific needs and vulnerabilities of migrants, on project development and implementation etc. Carving space for knowledge exchange among actors in one territory or between territories can also contribute to enhancing capacities, allowing for lessons learned to be shared and facilitating peer-to-peer review and support. As was pointed out previously, such spaces can be created though decentralized cooperation processes, temporary return programmes and online networks etc.

Upon the realization of all of the above points, contributors then highlighted the need to identify priority thematic areas and specific policies and actions to carry these out. Many examples of how to do just this were pointed out based on the various experiences of the respondents, including: (i) creating a specific unit at local government level dedicated to the mainstreaming process with trained personnel; (ii) creating an inter-ministerial working group to steer the process and ensure policy coherence across all sectors; (iii) establishing migrant help desks to support and provide orientation for migrants in their personal and professional socio-economic endeavours; (iv) setting up an online information and knowledge exchange platform for migrants and associations to connect and learn; and (v) creating a Migration and Development Space where migrants, government bodies and civil society can come together to share experience, understand needs and ideas and reflect on how best to continue their work in M&D. Such a space also allows for migrants, their associatons and NGOs to lobby at the governmental level and this advice and knowledge can subsequently be fed into local policy planning; (iv) assign adequate funds to ensure implementation, monitoring and evaluation. With regards to monitoring and evaluation, it is also key to ensure that this takes place to allow for learning from past experience and continually being able to improve policies and services.

Other obstacles identified include difficulties in ensuring that within the migrant population, the different transversal approaches were also applied, such as the human rights based approach, gender and youth. While the diagnostic should allow for the identification of the varied needs and vulnerabilities even within a migrant population, ensuring that these the needs and rights of women, children, elderly, disabled, mentally ill etc. are considered across the whole mainstreaming process is complex. This goes hand in hand with an additional obstacle which is ensuring that actions are tailored to migrants’ specific needs, even when these vary across the board, while also ensuring that the non migrant population does not lose out. This can often cause further marginalization and social tension between migrant and non-migrant populations, rather than the opposite. Mitigating this is clearly not easy and goes back to raising the awareness and understanding of the general population, ‘selling’ migration as an opportunity that benefits the whole community and then subsequently ensuring that policies and actions taken do indeed benefit the whole community.

 

Question 4: What examples are there of successful and local authority-led initiatives which aim to institutionalize migration into the local agenda. Have they been replicated in other territories and what were the results? To what extent are these initiatives linked to and in line with regional and/or national development plans and is this a success factor?  What measures and practices could be adopted by local authorities in order to increase the institutionalisation, replicability and success of these initiatives?

Costa Rica:

From the Costa Rican perspective, respondents highlighted the key role of civil society and local authorities through lobbying activities in ensuring migration is mainstreamed into local policy planning. This is particularly important since local initiatives are not in line with national development plans in the Costa Rican context. Lobbying and political incidence is therefore crucial to ensure national support and endorsement of activities, as well as to ensure good practices are recognized and replicated. Specifically with regards to the established Transborder Management Model of the territory of Upala, this has only been possible due to endorsement at the national level to allow Upala to create a specific catergory of ‘transborder’ migrant, allowing such migrants to benefit from specific services and protection.

 

Senegal:

Within the context of the experience of Sedhiou’s Regional Development Agency, a JMDI project partner, one of the main success factors for mainstreaming migration into local policy planning has been identified as the level of credibility of the local authorities. Any mainstreaming process or M&D initiative will not be sustainable if migrants and their associations are not rapidly convinced about their utility. Indeed, if measures announced by local government do not respond to their needs and priorities, the participation of migrants and their associations will falter and their trust dissolve. It is therefore important to proceed prudently when creating and announcing measures for/involving migrants. To mitigiate this and build rapport, experience sharing, consultations and training for migrants and their associations are examples of activities to be carried out.

A further success story is found in the rounds of dialogue bringing together migrants and their partners to foster cooperation between territories which the French-Senegalese NGO GRDR has been carrying out over the past few years. These dialogues have been on-going within the river basin shared between Senegal, Mali and Mauritania and essentially bring migrants, civil society and local authorities together through online conferences to promote decentralised cooperation practices. More information on this can be found in the publication   « Guide d’organisation d’une mission double espace , à la rencontre des migrant et de leur partenaires pour une coopération de territoire à territoire » which can be downloaded here : site www.grdr.org(link is external).

 

 

South Africa:

According to an expert contribution from the OECD, the South African example suggests that for local mainstreaming to be successful, there is a need for robust vertical and horizontal policy and institutional coherence, and related to this, a mix of particular mechanisms and knowledge. These include, for example, mechanisms on (i) accountability (both upward and downward); (ii) co-ordination and communication; and (iii) monitoring and evaluation. Such mechanisms can encourage policy makers’ understanding of their exact responsibilities to the local population vis-à-vis those of the central government; which governmental and non-governmental actors must report to, consult and communicate with regularly; and the effectiveness and impact of their policy interventions.

In addition, local policy makers must have a strong sense of the reality in which they are operating, meaning there is a need for data collection on the demographic characteristics of their local population (including migrants); the particular needs of migrants and how they may be marginalised from certain types of service provision and discriminated against; the attitudes of the native population toward migrants; and migrants’ – both potential and actual – social and economic impact on and contribution to local communities.

 

Philippines:

Respondents from the Philippines provided a general overview of the experience of the JMDI and other similar initiatives together with a specific example from the City of Legazpi:

JMDI and similar M&D initiatives are being implemented in four regions in the Philippines where several Local Government Units (LGUs) (province, city or municipalities) are targeted. In the Bicol region, 8 out of the 15 targeted LGUs already have their own executive orders, or competencies, in M&D. In Calabarzon region, 4 out of 5 provinces have operating structures in M&D in the form of a provincial council or migration resource centers. In Western Visayas region, 10 out of 16 targeted LGUs have already signed legislations on M&D and in Ilocos, 3 out of 4 provinces have established Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW) desks or centers.

 

The main results of these processes are:

  1. The mainstreaming process fostered easier and faster networking and partnership building between the national/regional agencies with the local authorities, particularly in ensuring a trickle-down process from the national programs to the local level, and for local level in seeking assistance from the national agencies;
  2. Migrant groups, mostly involving families, have become a force in the decision making and programming at the local level;
  3. Development and investment policies are being passed or evaluated to respond to the needs and interests of migrants – including the appropriation of budgets for M&D programmes.

 

To institutionalize and replicate these initiatives, the following strategies are being adopted:

  • Inclusion of the policy inputs (lessons learned, good initiatives) derived from implementing the JMDI in the Depatment of Interior and Local Governemnt’s (DILG) Comprehensive Development Plan for adoption by local authorities, including the eventual inclusion of M&D as a category to asses when assigning the Seal of Good Local Government to local authorities;
  • While localizing M&D efforts, national endorsement of these processes can strengthen efforts through spaces like the national special committees on international migration and development led by National Economic Development Authority (NEDA) central office. With NEDA and the Regional Development Council as leaders in two of the four M&D projects, the good practices and lessons learnt can also easily be shared with the other regions;
  • Institutionalize the capacity building tools and mentoring model from the Joint Migration and Development Initiative into local civil service training and support for LGUs;

 

The City Government of Legazpi then shared its experience in mainstreaming migration and development into the local agenda:

  1. Inclusion of Migration and Development as a sub-sector under the Social Development Sector of the Local Planning and Development Council;
  2. Creation of a Committee on Migration and Development;
  3. Involvement of the Social Action Center of the Diocese of Legazpi, a church-based organization, in organizing the Migrants Family Associations and establishing a data base.
  4. Creation of M&D Thematic Working Group involving LGU officials, department heads, concerned national line-agencies, academia, Civil Society Organziations, land-based Representatives, Sea-based Representative and OFW Entreprenuers Representative.

 

The city of Legazpi also shared future initiatives that it aims to do including:

  1. The localization of obligatory pre-migration medical services from central level to the territories to minimize expenses of would-be Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW);
  2. “ULI NA SA LEGAZPI PROGRAM” –which is an Investment Promotion Opportunities to encourage the OFs/OFWs and their families to invest in Legazpi City;

 

Finally, the City of Legazpi highlighted what it had learned and replicated from other initaitives through knowledge exchange initiatives with other local territories:

  1. Establishment of an OFW Help Desk;
  2. Establishment of Migration Resource and Service Center;
  3. Establish an annual OFW Family Day – to be held every first week of December for awareness raising and promoting the work and initiatives of OFWs;
  4. Conduct Pre-Migration Orientation Seminar (PMOS), Capacity Building, Financial Literacy, Skills/Livelihood Trainings for would-be OFW and their family members;
  5. Trainer’s Training to have further outreac capacity in capacity building on such things as Family and Income Management, and other training sessions.

 

Ecuador:

The example provided was that of the Province of Pichincha, Quito. There, the province itself has had an established Human Mobility Office (Unidad de Gestión de Movilidad Humana) since 2013, which provides integral care for people experiencing mobility. This means that all “types” of people in mobility are included (refugees, immigrants, transit migrants, returned migrants and their families) and that the services are planned to take care of the social, economic and political integration of people in mobility, and of the protection of their human rights. These services include:

  • first arrival care and shelter for the protection of rights (counselling, legal advice, mediation for access to housing, health care, access to cultural and sports activities); economic inclusion through self-employment strategies (advice on micro-business start-up);
  • promoting organized community savings accounts; co-financed seed funds, and dependent employment (by the State Employment Service of the Employment Ministry, labour skills certification and training);
  • supporting migrants’ political inclusion and socio-organizational support, and research.

Through the JMDI, the management model of the UMH is being enhanced in two ways: firstly, the UMH aims to strengthen the services given in the UMH office in Quito; secondly it has created mobile units to cover the whole territory of the province, relying on local organisations to organise outreach to migrant communities. The UMH is part of the Secretary of Human Development and environment (Secretaría de Desarrollo Humano y Ambiente) of the Province of Pichincha.

Inserting migration into the local development agenda was facilitated by the fact that people in human mobility are defined as vulnerable groups by the local Social Inclusion Agenda and by the Ecuadorian Constitution. The development and the protection of rights for the Ecuadorian constitution are strictly related and the fact that migrants are targeted for special services demonstrate the strong political will of connecting migration and development at national and local level.

The model of the UMH of the Province of Pichincha was replicated within the second JMDI project in the northern province of Imbabura, at the border with Colombia, a province experiencing trans-border movements of populations and destination of many Colombian refugees. The UMH was implanted in Imbabura through the restructuring of the local civil society institution for social action (Patronato Provincial de accion social) and its Annual Operational Planning.

Moreover, the local government of Pichincha also promoted the need to incorporate human mobility into local planning across Ecuador through the Consortium of Provincial Governments of Ecuador (CONGOPE). Pichincha local government is thus now acting as an advisory body for the other provincial governments on how to incorporate human mobility into Territorial Management Plans through the replication of the UMH project. Pichincha is also becoming an interesting good practice and strategic interlocutor for national institutions, thus fostering further and more successful mainstreaming of migration into national policies, which in turn, feed back into and support local policies on mainstreaming migration into local development planning.

 

 

Conclusion

It is clear to see that while migration and mainstreaming migration issues continue to be dealt with at the international and national levels, LRAs and other local actors are increasingly dealing with their own migration issues and contexts in an innovative way at the local level. Moreover, in some cases, local level actions are being recognised at national level and used as models for replication in other territories. All participants agreed that the extent to which such actions are successful is indeed closely linked with the level of decentralisation of the state, with more decentralisation giving more opportunities to LRAs to define their own policies and programmes that can better respond to the needs in their territory. Beyond the decentralisation context, many key measures for success in mainstreaming were identified with the need for a multi-sector, multi-stakeholder and participatory approach to mainstreaming identified as the most important key success factors. However, LRAs and other local actors also face many challenges in mainstreaming, whether this is a lack of support at the national level, lack of migration data, lack of human and financial resouces or difficulties in coordinating large numbers of stakeholders. Given the great development potential of mainstreaming migration into local development policy, together with the difficulties LRAs and other local actors have in successfully carrying this out, the importance of ensuring that the key role of LRAs in migration and development is recognised cannot be overemphasized. By ensuring such recognition and support, only then will LRAs be able to access knowledge exchange platforms, support tools and adequate resources and competencies that will allow them to successfully and sustainabily mainstream migration into local development planning.

 

 

Introduction

The JMDI is pleased to launch this e-discussion on the topic of mainstreaming migration into local development planning. This e-discussion comes within the framework of the Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI) and the International Organization for Migration’s (IOM) partnership in developing a White Paper on Mainstreaming Migration into Local Development Planning. Please find the concept note for the White Paper here. Through this White Paper, a comparative study will be carried out on what has already been done, or is currently being done, to mainstream migration into local development planning to date, gathering good practices and lessons learnt. In doing so, the JMDI and IOM aim to further the global understanding of the local dimension of migration and development (M&D). This e-discussion therefore invites local actors around the globe to share their experience and views on mainstreaming migration into local development planning which will be fed into the White Paper.

Context

It is now globally recognized that migration and development are intrinsically linked and that, when well-managed, it is possible to mitigate the negative and harness the positive effects that migration can have on development and that development can have on migration. However, the nature of migration, and the context in which it takes place, are extremely varied and complex, making it important that policymakers intervene to manage this context and allow for this potential to be seized. In this sense and given the multifaceted nature of the inter-relationship between migration and development, any such intervention is best undertaken in a systematic and comprehensive way.

The most appropriate way to ensure this systematic approach is to mainstream M&D issues directly into policy planning. This process can be described as the process of assessing the implications of migration on any action planned in a development strategy. By taking such an approach, it allows migration to be embedded in the broader development strategy, fostering a coherent approach rather than piecemeal and uncoordinated actions. Indeed, such an approach promotes enhanced coordination among government departments as well as with other relevant actors, leading to more successful policies.

Although mainstreaming processes are now mainly addressed at the national level, their translation and application at the local level is a crucial aspect in view of maximizing the potential of the migration and local development nexus. This is particularly important given that it is local and regional authorities (LRAs) that find themselves at the forefront of dealing with the needs, rights and concerns of migrants within the scope of the various services they provide for the development of the whole community. This necessarily implies the need to mainstream migration as a cross-cutting issue into legislation, policies and programmes at all levels (local, regional and national) and across all sectors e.g. access to housing, education, social security etc. It also means integrating M&D concerns at all stages of policy planning, including design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. Essentially, M&D needs to become institutionalized at all governmental levels where the consideration of migration issues becomes standard practice or normalized within local government policy planning.

It is within this context that this e-discussion invites local M&D actors to contribute with their experience and knowledge in mainstreaming migration into local planning as an unprecedented attempt to capture the lessons learnt and knowledge of LRAs on M&D mainstreaming at the local level.

 

Questions for discussion

Based on the above, the JMDI and the IOM invite all actors involved in mainstreaming migration into local development planning to respond to the below questions:

  1. What does mainstreaming migration into local policy planning mean to you?
  2. How would you describe the relationship between the cross-cutting approach to M&D and the level and process of decentralisation of the state? Within this context, what is the role of decentralized cooperation processes and actors and how can these three elements be reconciled?  
  3. What are the key measures that are necessary to successfully institutionalise migration into local planning and how can these be implemented? What are the challenges and opportunities associated with these measures?
  4. What examples are there of successful and local authority-led initiatives which aim to institutionalize migration into the local agenda. Have they been replicated in other territories and what were the results? To what extent are these initiatives linked to and in line with regional and/or national development plans and is this a success factor?  What measures and practices could be adopted by local authorities in order to increase the institutionalisation, replicability and success of these initiatives?

Note

Thank you very much for your participation and contribution to this debate, which will be online until 24 July 2015. To share your contribution, thoughts and ideas, please click "reply", and leave a comment.

L'intégration de la migration dans les politiques de développement local ne peut se concevoir qu'au niveau de l'apport des migrants au développement local. En effet, s'il est vrai que la migration se passe d'abord d'une collectivité territoriale à l'autre dans un même pays, on ne parle réellement de migration que quand les départs vont au-delà des frontières internationales d'un pays. Aussi, ces départs ont rarement un rapport direct avec les politiques locales de développement si ce n'est à travers les emplois créés par les projets de développement qui pourraient retenir un certain nombre de candidats au départ.

Par contre les projets de développement local mis en place avec la participation des migrants organisés dans les pays d'accueil, ont un rapport direct avec les migrations internationales. Les transferts financiers et de compétences et savoirs alimentant ces projets constituent souvent la raison d'être des migrations économiques motivées par la recherche de revenus monétaires.

Es un ejercicio que implica incluir el tema de la migración en todas las fases de la planificación de las políticas locales (inclusión en la agenda del gobierno local, diagnóstico de la realidad en el territorio, identificación de  prioridades, diseño y formulación de la política) e incluso en la implementación, monitoreo y seguimiento, y evaluación de ésta. Esto significa, por una parte, tener una comprensión clara (desde un posicionamiento también claro sobre el tema) de la dimensión de la realidad de la migración en el territorio que se busca abordar mediante la política, lo que a su vez significa identificar las respuestas que se pueden brindar desde las competencias y recursos existentes en los gobiernos locales. Involucra, además, incluir en todas las fases a los actores clave que requieren esas respuestas, principalmente a las personas en situación de movilidad humana, partiendo de sus necesidades y reconociendo qué recursos (capital humano, social, cultural, económico, financiero, etc.) ellos/as están en capacidad de aportar durante el proceso de planificación (e implementación de la política local). Por otra parte, significa también que en el proceso de planificación de la política, se analice (conjuntamente con las personas en situación de movilidad humana y otros actores clave), cómo las políticas que no necesariamente tienen que ver directamente con el tema de movilidad humana, afectan a la población que se encuentra en estos contextos; así como las implicaciones e impactos que las dinpámicas de movilidad humana en el territorio pueden tener sobre el desarrollo de esa localidad. 

Adicionalmente, este ejercicio también implica guardar coherencia y articulación con los documentos de desarrollo y planificación nacionales (y/o de otros niveles de gobierno) referidos a migración.

Questions for discussion
Based on the above, the JMDI and the IOM invite all actors involved in mainstreaming migration into local development planning to respond to the below questions:

1. What does mainstreaming migration into local policy planning mean to you?

Mainstreaming migration into local policy planning means that local stakeholders – from local governments to CSOs to private sector – take a stand, recognize, understand, advocate, support migration as part of their local policies and investment programming, either as “migration supporting local development” or “as a local entity mandated to protect the rights and promote the interests of migrants”.

This could take many forms such as including migration-related provisions in their comprehensive local development plans (usually 3, 5 or 10 years) or in their annual investment programming; building or strengthening local migration institutions or structures, where stakeholders include the migrants or their families; and expanding the local programs and services that cut across various needs of migrants and their families – from psycho-social to legal, and from economic to political inclusion, etc.

Mainstreaming migration into local policy planning also means that the LGUs have recognized their mandate, responsibility and accountability towards their constituents – that they also have to come up with local programs and services (in addition and to compensate what national entities can provide), and that migrants are not only needed for financial support, philanthropy or investment purposes.

2. How would you describe the relationship between the cross-cutting approach to M&D and the level and process of decentralisation of the state? Within this context, what is the role of decentralized cooperation processes and actors and how can these three elements be reconciled?

Local governments in the Philippines are already empowered to pass their own legislations, appropriate their own budget (both national and local sourced), and implement their identified programs and services by virtue of decentralization law in 1998. National government agencies such as DOLE, POEA and OWWA are with their respective regional offices whose relationship and partnership with local authorities have been strengthened by virtue of JMDI in the regions of intervention.

Migration-related themes such as gender and disaster-risk reduction have also been mainstreamed at the local level by virtue of other laws. As such, the experience in mainstreaming gender and DRR at the local level is being used as model in mainstreaming migration.

3. What are the key measures that are necessary to successfully institutionalise migration into local planning and how can these be implemented? What are the challenges and opportunities associated with these measures?

A. Measures
a. Identify and advocate for a champion – better if it is the local chief executive (mayor/governor) or a member of the local legislature – to bring into programs and policies respectively the M&D, with corresponding budget appropriation and assignment of personnel
b. Identify and support a focal person – could be the local planning officer or the PESO manager or the local development/investment officer – it depends on who has the imprimatur of the LCE, or who has the mandate by law, or who has the power and influence to make things happen
c. Regularly capacitate and mentor the LGU officials

B. Challenges
a. Local migration data – either scarce or not updated/reliable – thus needing other migration data source which could be administrative data from national migration agencies or other surveys with migration-relevant data such as consumer expenditure survey or community based monitoring system
b. In the Philippines, the upcoming May 2016 national and local election may pose challenge, but if the measures in Item A are in place, then mainstreaming will continue to work

C. Opportunities
a. Overseas Filipinos will continue to come back to their hometowns permanently or tentatively, and are always looking for ways and opportunities to connect, network and partner with their LGU and other stakeholders
b. In the Philippines, strong support of Migrant Forum in Asia in the projects, which means that MFA can connect the migrant groups they help built and strengthen across Asia with their LGUs in the Philippines
c. National institutions and policies are in sync with the localization of migration and development processes – both from the National Economic and Development Authority and Department of the Interior and Local Government

4. What examples are there of successful and local authority-led initiatives which aim to institutionalize migration into the local agenda? Have they been replicated in other territories and what were the results? To what extent are these initiatives linked to and in line with regional and/or national development plans and is this a success factor? What measures and practices could be adopted by local authorities in order to increase the institutionalisation, replicability and success of these initiatives?

JMDI and similar M&D initiatives are being implemented in four regions in the Philippines where several LGUs (province, city or municipalities) are targeted. In Bicol region, 8 of the 15 targeted LGUs already have their executive orders on M&D. In Calabarzon region, 4 out of 5 provinces have operating structures on M&D in the form of a provincial council or migration resource centers. In Western Visayas region, 10 of 16 targeted LGUs already have signed legislations on M&D and in Ilocos, 3 of 4 provinces are with their OF/OFW desks or centers. These numbers show a growing understanding and recognition by local authorities of the nexus between M&D.

The results of these processes are:
1. Mainstreaming fostered the easier and faster networking and partnership between the national/regional agencies with the local authorities, particularly in cascading the national programs to the local level, and for local level in seeking assistance from the national agencies.
2. Migrant groups, mostly involving families, have become a force in the decision making and programming at the local level.
3. Development and investment policies are being passed or evaluated to respond to the needs and interests of migrants – including the appropriation of budgets for M&D programs.

To institutionalize and replicate these initiatives, the following strategies are being adopted:
1. Inclusion of the policy inputs (lessons learned, good initiatives) derived from implementing the JMDI in the DILG’s Comprehensive Development Plan for adoption by local authorities, including the eventual inclusion of M&D in the Seal of Good Local Government.
2. While localizing M&D efforts, a national imprimatur can strengthened the effort through the national special committee on international migration and development led by NEDA central office. With NEDA and the Regional Development Council as lead in two of the four M&D projects, the good practices can easily be shared with the other regions following the same objectives and processes but situating in the local context.
3. Institutionalize the capacity building and mentoring activities with local institutions such as the academe and local civil service.
4. Involve other stakeholders such as CSOs and faith-based groups, who are less mobile and not susceptible to any political processes.

Primero, se debe lograr la voluntad y el compromiso político de la autoridad local. Esto implica hacer un trabajo sostenido de incidencia (no solamente sobre la autoridad misma, sino también sobre actores clave que pueden a su vez ser promotores del tema y generar incidencia sobre la autoridad). En este trabajo la participación directa de las personas en movilidad humana resulta clave, en articulación con otros actores locales (y actores nacionales en territorio), que representen los diversos intereses que pueden movilizarse para encausar los efectos y potencialidades de la migración hacia el desarrollo local. Garantizar el compromiso de la autoridad, potencialmente, implica también garantizar que el tema se incluya en la agenda política local, y consecuentemente, la asignación de recursos para el diseño participativo y la implementación de la política.

También es necesario realizar un diagnóstico (participativo) de las necesidades que existen en torno al tema de la movilidad humana en el territorio, y analizar cuáles de ellas pueden ser atendidas por el gobierno local, en función de sus competencias; o en qué medida éste puede articular acciones con otros actores de gobierno en el territorio, para no dejar esa demanda desatendida.

Resulta importante, junto al tema de los recursos, garantizar la institucionalidad del tema, bien sea asignado la responsabilidad directa a una persona en el gobierno local, o a través de una instancia específica que se encargue de la transversalización en la planificación. 

Los retos tienen que ver con la complejidad de contar con información cualitativa y cuantitativa sobre la realidad de la movilidad humana en los territorios, a fin de contar con líneas de base y un sustento sobre el cual diseñar las acciones y definir metas e indicadores.

Un reto adicional, en los contextos donde existen procesos de descentralización y desconcentración, implica el articular y coordinar acciones entre los distintos actores del estado presentes en el territorio y con los diversos niveles de gobierno, a fin de no duplicar acciones y de brindar respuestas efectivas. Un tercer reto implica la ruptura de paradigmas y estereotipos que existen entre las comunidades de acogida y las sociedades de origen, sobre la migración, lo que implica necesariamente siempre trabajar con toda la comunidad (lo que en sí mismo es el sentido de transversalizar el tema en la planificación, para abordarlo junto con otros temas que también son prioritarios para la comunidad).

También surge como un reto el hecho de lograr incorporar en la transversalización diversos enfoques: de derechos, de género, de interculturalidad e intergeneracional, pues las demandas así como las potencialidades de la población en movilidad humana tienen que ver con variables de sexo, edad, origen étnico, origen nacional, etc.

Por último (sin significar que no existan más retos), es fundamental en el ejercicio de la planificación de la política pública, y de transversalización de la migración y el desarrollo, lograr un equilibrio con las acciones focalizadas y acciones afirmativas para personas en movilidad humana, por cuanto existen ciertas necesidades de los grupos en  movilidad que son muy específicas (por ejemplo, aquellas de asistencia humanitaria que requieren las personas refugiadas). Es un reto por cuanto la experiencia demuestra que este tipo de acciones suelen generar rechazo y fragmentación social entre la población local, especialmente en los territorios donde el ejercicio de derechos se ve limitado y el acceso a servicios es precario para la toda la comunidad. 

La visión de las autoridades para incluir a los grupos de atención prioritaria en la planificación territorial, es importante para generar procesos participativos y la decisión de institucionalizar la atención integral a estos grupos.

Para lograr una atención integral eficiente y eficaz es importante la alianza y coordinación con las diferentes instituciones que trabajan en el territorio, caso contrario el impacto en el territorio sera mínimo y los esfuerzos realizados no causaran el efecto esperado.

En el caso del Ecuador se puede mencionar dos iniciativas exitosas de incorporación de la migración en la agenda local. El primero es el caso del Gobierno Autónomo Descentralizado (GAD) de la Provincia de Pichincha, que a través de la creación de la Unidad de Gestión de Movilidad Humana en el año 2013, dentro de la Secretaría de Desarrollo Humano y Ambiente, implementa un modelo de atención integral a personas en movilidad humana (refugiados/as, inmigrantes, personas en tránsito, migrantes/retornados/as y sus familias). La planificación de la Unidad se enmarca y responde a la Agenda de Inclusión Social del GAD de Pichincha, que es una herramienta de definición de política pública para los grupos de atención prioritaria, determinados por la Constitución Política del Ecuador, entre los cuales se encuentran las personas en movilidad humana. El modelo de atención y gestión se sustenta en dos estrategias: el fortalecimiento de servicios y atención directa en Quito, en la Oficina de la Unidad, y de forma articulada con los servicios que brindan las demás Unidades y Oficinas del GAD a toda la población de la Provincia; y la intervención en territorio junto a organizaciones que trabajan en las zonas y mediante unidades móviles. Las acciones comprenden: la atención y acogida para la protección de derechos (asistencia psicológica, asesoría jurídica, mediación para acceso a vivienda, atención en salud, acceso a actividades culturales y deportivas – estos tres últimos elementos por medio de servicios brindados por otras instancias/direcciones del GAD Provincial); la inclusión económica por medio de estrategias de autoempleo (asesoría en micro emprendimientos productivo); el fomento cajas de ahorro asociativas; capitales semilla concursables) y de empleo dependiente (mediante la Bolsa de Empleo del Ministerio de Trabajo, la certificación de competencias laborales y la capacitación); y la incidencia política, la participación y apoyo socio organizativo, y la investigación.

El segundo, es el modelo del Gobierno Autónomo Descentralizado (GAD) de la Provincia de Imbabura, recientemente creado en enero de 2015, dentro del Patronato Provincial de Acción Social, con la Unidad (o Proceso) de Movilidad Humana. A raíz de la implementación del proyecto de la ICMD por parte del GAD de Imbabura, se incluyó en el ejercicio de re estructuración del Patronato Provincial la mencionada unidad, y en el diseño de su Planificación Operativa Anual para el periodo fiscal 2015 se incluyeron acciones específicas sobre movilidad humana, con un presupuesto público para la ejecución. El Patronato de Acción Social implementa un mecanismo de acercamiento a las comunidades (en los territorios de la provincia), para llevar los servicios para la población directamente a través de brigadas compuestas por todas las unidades y programas del Patronato (unidad médica, unidad educativa de sordos, unidad de inclusión social, soberanía alimentaria, ciclo de vida y unidad de movilidad humana) con lo cual se puede tener un conocimiento de primera mano de las necesidades de la población, y se propicia la articulación de los diversos servicios. Las brigadas de socialización de los servicios y programas permiten que el equipo técnico encargado de la Unidad de Movilidad Humana puede entrar en contacto directo con la población en movilidad humana en estos territorios y así conocer de primera mano las necesidades y condiciones de vida de dichos grupos, a fin de integrarlos en los servicios del Patronato.

En el primer punto, en

En el primer punto, en relación a la integración de la migración en la planificación de políticas locales, desde mi punto de vista, esto significa que la planificación de las políticas locales se debe de hacer de manera participativa, tomando en cuenta las realidades y opiniones de los principales actores locales del territorio y la población en general. Al hacer esto, se podrán integrar temas de gran relevancia para el territorio tales como la migración. A algunos actores se les hace difícil ver la relación directa que hay entre migración y el desarrollo de un territorio, es por esto que es importante realizar consultas participativas que permitan evidenciar la realidad del territorio, sistematizar esta información y posteriormente poder sensibilizar en estas temáticas a los actores de toma de decisiones.

Respecto a la relación entre el enfoque transversal de MyD y el nivel del proceso de descentralización del Estado, considero que en países que tiene un gobierno descentralizado es más factible la implementación de un enfoque transversal de MyD, ya que pueden diseñar sus propias legislaciones, designar presupuesto, implementar programas y ofrecer servicios. Sin embargo, en países donde no se tienen procesos descentralizados hay mucha burocracia de por medio que no permite avanzar en estos proceso de transversalización de Migración y Desarrollo.

Por otro lado, si hablamos de “transversalizar” hay que tener mucho cuidado con la aplicación de este término, ya que muchas veces se corre el riesgo de des configurar el objetivo final y por abarcar mucho, no se hacen acciones específicas, concretas que abonen a la implementación de estrategias de MyD.

Considero que algunas de las principales medidas para incorporar con éxito la migración en la planificación local pueden ser las siguientes:
• Alianzas estratégicas con actores locales y nacionales
• Aprendizaje de lecciones aprendidas de otras experiencias exitosas
• Consultas participativas
• Generación de capacidades y sensibilización a actores estratégicos
• Diagnóstico de caracterización para conocer la realidad local
• Entre otras.

Si se asume un enfoque transversal sobre la migración y el desarrollo en la política pública local, esto implica que un gobierno/autoridad local debe abordar la temática a partir de las competencias y funciones que le corresponden directamente, analizando cómo y en qué medida la migración y los diversos recursos y potencialidades que ésta trae consigo (incluyendo a las propias personas en movilidad humana), están afectando positiva o negativamente el desarrollo local, y viceversa (cómo el desarrollo local está beneficiando a las personas en situación de movilidad). Desde esta perspectiva, es claro que los niveles de descentralización de las competencias, gestión y recursos desde el Estado central hacia los gobiernos/autoridades locales, será un determinante clave que posibilite o dificulte la transversalización de la migración y el desarrollo en las políticas locales, en la medida en que las competencias transferidas permitan o dificulten la incorporación y transversalización del tema; incluso, las autoridades locales rara vez tienen la responsabilidad de la gestión de los temas de movilidad humana, que debido a su carácter internacional generalmente recaen bajo la competencia de las autoridades gubernamentales nacionales, y no suelen abordarse de la mano del campo del desarrollo. Por ello, mientras más avanzado esté un proceso de descentralización, mayores posibilidades habrá de que los gobiernos locales asuman directamente competencias sobre migración o que puedan realizar un ejercicio exitoso de transversalización del tema en la planificación de sus políticas de desarrollo.

En este sentido, resulta muy importante que las buenas prácticas que los gobiernos locales han tenido en la transversalización del tema migración y desarrollo en sus políticas locales, puedan ser capitalizadas a través de mecanismos de cooperación descentralizada (especialmente Sur – Sur), para que las lecciones aprendidas y los modelos implementados sean diseminados vía asistencia técnica con otros gobiernos locales interesados.

1.    ¿Qué significa para usted integrar la migración en la planificación de las políticas local?

Significa visibilizar las desigualdades que genera el proceso migratorio al no contar con políticas para promover y proteger derechos de las personas que se encuentran en esta situación.

Significa relevar a la migración a política pública, significa no naturalizar las vulnerabilidades que produce la escasa o nula protección de derechos de personas en movilidad humana por considerar a la migración un evento normal y natural.

2. ¿Cómo describiría la relación entre el enfoque transversal de M&D y el nivel del proceso de descentralización del Estado? En este contexto, ¿cuál es el papel de los actores y de los procesos de cooperación descentralizada y cómo se pueden reconciliar estos tres elementos?

Personalmente, no creo en el enfoque transversal porque se corre el riesgo de invisibilizar o suponer que esta implícito. Creo y apuesto por tener políticas específicas, puntuales de migración y desarrollo. Solo teniendo políticas " exclusivas" tendremos la capacidad de otorgar presupuesto a las políticas. Hay que recordar que políticas sin presupuesto es como si no existieran. Pregunto, como destinar presupuesto al enfoque transversal?

En cuanto a la descentralización, creo que debemos apostar por la coordinación multinivel, pues cada nivel de gobierno tiene funciones y competencias específicas, por lo tanto solo la coordinación y DIALOGO ENTRE IGUALES lograra convertirse en un puzle, sin que ningún actor este por encima de  otro.

3. ¿Cuáles son las principales medidas que son necesarias para incorporar con éxito la migración en la planificación local y cómo pueden aplicarse? ¿Cuáles son los retos y las oportunidades asociadas a estas medidas?

Creo que una de las principales medidas para la planificación local es conocer bien las demandas, necesidades de las personas en situación de movilidad humana. Recuperar y reconocer sus capacidades, experiencias, aprendizajes harán que nuestros territorios se enriquezcan.

En el caso de Pichincha, hemos logrado incluir en el diagnóstico del Plan de Ordenamiento territorial el eje movilidad humana, pues es la única manera de que se diseñe una política publica y destinar presupuesto. Sin embargo, uno de los retos fue visibilizar e la agenda pública de nuestra autoridad el tema de movilidad humana, para ello fue necesario levantar una línea base, contar con información determinada para cada cantón de la provincia, pues reconocimos que la movilidad humana no es la "misma" en toda nuestra provincia. Otro reto, es generar el valor público a nuestras autoridades locales, debemos asumir que son electas y que necesitan "vender" la idea de las "ventajas" de la movilidad humana. La gran oportunidad es que nuestros territorios pueden ser espacios de convivencia pacífica intercultural.

4. ¿Qué ejemplos existen de iniciativas exitosas lideradas por las autoridades locales que tienen como objetivo incorporar la migración en la agenda local? ¿Han sido replicadas en otros territorios y cuáles fueron los resultados? ¿Hasta qué punto están estas iniciativas vinculadas y en línea con los planes de desarrollo regional y/o nacional y, es este un factor de éxito? ¿Qué medidas y prácticas podrían ser adoptadas por las autoridades locales con el fin de aumentar la institucionalización, la réplica y el éxito de estas iniciativas?

En Ecuador, desde el GAD Pichincha hemos impulsado la necesidad de incorporar la movilidad humana en la planificación local, es así, que gracias al apoyo de la ICMD-PNUD, y aprovechando que el CONGOPE (Consorcio de Gobiernos Provinciales del Ecuador) está presidido por el Prefecto Baroja, autoridad provincial de Pichincha, estamos asesorando a otros gobiernos provinciales -enfatizando en frontera norte y sur- para incorporar en el diagnóstico del Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial a la movilidad humana, pues como señale en líneas anteriores, esta incorporación garantiza el diseño de una política de movilidad humana y presupuesto. Todo ello se refleja en la experiencia del GAD Pichincha, que por el momento cuenta con una Unidad especializada e institucionalizada en el orgánico funcional de la institución. Quizás no es el mejor ejemplo el del GAD Pichincha, pero los resultados hasta el momento han sido exitosos, pues se ha visibilizado a la movilidad humana en la política publica. Aún queda como reto mejorar la coordinación con el nivel de gobierno central, además, esta experiencia nos ha ensenado que desde lo local se puede replicar a nivel nacional.

 

Qué significa para usted integrar la migración en la planificación de las políticas locales?

Es la participación activa de los migrantes, en los procesos de elaboración de los planes de desarrollo municipal de sus comunidades de origen, si bien se sabe que los migrantes son actores importantes para el desarrollo de las comunidades, en ocasiones no se incluyen como actores en el proceso de elaboración de las políticas locales, siendo ellos agentes que contribuyen en su desarrollo. El involucrarlos les permite conocer la realidad de sus comunidades y como han evolucionado desde que se fueron hasta la actualidad. A través de la participación en el desarrollo de estos planes, pueden ser escuchados en sus comunidades sobre los aportes que desde el exterior los migrantes desean brindar a sus municipios y hacer el vínculo con las instituciones necesarias para poder desarrollarlos, por lo que ya no serán esfuerzos aislados por parte de los migrantes, sino un trabajo de manera conjunta y articulada con los gobiernos locales, sociedad civil, empresa privada, entre otros actores esenciales en el territorio.

¿Cuáles son las principales medidas que son necesarias para incorporar con éxito la migración en la planificación local y cómo pueden aplicarse? ¿Cuáles son los retos y las oportunidades asociadas a estas medidas?

Generación de estadísticas sobre las comunidades de migrantes en el exterior.
Creación de un perfil del migrante en el exterior, el cual deje ver los aspectos sociales, culturales y políticos de los migrantes.
Empoderamiento de las autoridades locales en el tema de migración y desarrollo.
Participación activa de las y los migrantes en la formulación de políticas de desarrollo local.
Institucionalización de migración y desarrollo a nivel local.
Sinergias entre gobierno central y local en atención a migrantes y el trabajo que desarrollan a nivel territorial.

Retos:                                                                      

Generación de estadísticas confiables sobre los migrantes, pues se sabe que por la misma complejidad del tema, es difícil poder obtener datos puros sobre migración territorial.
Que las autoridades locales puedan ser capacitadas en temas de migración y desarrollo, pues esto en alguna medida influye para la incorporación de temas sobre migración y desarrollo en la formulación de las políticas locales.
Creación de un mecanismos que permita garantizar la participación activa de las personas migrantes.
Lograr la institucionalización y la articulación del trabajo entre gobierno central y local en el área de migración y desarrollo a nivel territorial.

Oportunidades:                                                                             

Las oportunidades es poder visibilizar todo el trabajo que se genera al poder articular las variables de migración y desarrollo a nivel local, trabajando con gobiernos locales, personas migrantes, gobierno central y los actores necesarios para lograr una institucionalización en las políticas públicas locales.

 

1.    ¿Qué significa para usted integrar la migración en la planificación de las políticas local

Para la generación de las políticas públicas es necesario identificar las situaciones que producen conflicto y desigualdad ante las personas en situación de movilidad humana,  que en el caso del Ecuador es producto del ejercicio autoritario del Poder que bajo un discurso progresista de derechos humanos y una constitución garantista, aun deja de lado los derechos fundamentales de las personas migrantes. 

Por esta razón es fundamental  integrar las necesidades desde un proceso participativo con las personas que se encuentran en situación de movilidad humana y los actores claves de la sociedad civil y organismos gubernamentales para la creación de políticas públicas que estén orientadas en erradicar o al menos disminuir significativamente las relaciones de desigualdad y un efectivo ejercicio y goce de derechos.

2. ¿Cómo describiría la relación entre el enfoque transversal de M&D y el nivel del proceso de descentralización del Estado? En este contexto, ¿cuál es el papel de los actores y de los procesos de cooperación descentralizada y cómo se pueden reconciliar estos tres elementos?

Para la construcción de políticas públicas y normativa que atiendan las necesidades de la población en situación de movilidad humana se ha evidenciado la importancia de aterrizar el diagnóstico y aplicación de la normativa a nivel local.

Los procesos de Descentralización permiten la transferencia del Poder nacional y recursos del Estado  a los gobiernos locales obteniendo una respuesta aparentemente más  oportuna y eficaz.

Estos procesos dentro de un sistema descentralizado permiten mayor participación de los actores involucrados en el Marco de Movilidad Humana. Y una  mejor devolución de resultados ante quienes llevan los procesos a nivel gubernamental y quienes lo reciben.

Y por supuesto que el enfoque de Migración y Desarrollo están implícitos en todo el proceso de las políticas y se debe especificar que se habla de un desarrollo únicamente visto desde lo económico, sino también desde lo cultural, social, etc. Sin embargo es importante tener políticas exclusivas y específicas en torno a la Migración y el Desarrollo de manera descentralizada, que tenga sus propios recursos y estrategias para mitigar la vulneración de derechos.

3. ¿Cuáles son las principales medidas que son necesarias para incorporar con éxito la migración en la planificación local y cómo pueden aplicarse? ¿Cuáles son los retos y las oportunidades asociadas a estas medidas?

Se debe realizar un diagnóstico inicial de la población y necesidades locales.

Rastreo de actores

Presupuesto

Incorporación de políticas locales para erradicar la situación conflictiva o procesos de desigualdad con la población migrante

Evaluación y monitoreo de resultados para evidenciar si efectivamente las medidas incorporadas están obteniendo los resultados esperados o se deben modificar las políticas o a su vez, los planes, programas y proyectos incorporados en la misma.

 

Los retos son lograr la erradicación dela situación que produce desigualdad desde un enfoque de género y derechos humanos. Adicionalmente se debe buscar procesos de inclusión e interculturalidad para aprovechar las experticias y capacidades de las personas en movilidad humana e iniciar un proceso reciproco de aprendizaje.

4. ¿Qué ejemplos existen de iniciativas exitosas lideradas por las autoridades locales que tienen como objetivo incorporar la migración en la agenda local? ¿Han sido replicadas en otros territorios y cuáles fueron los resultados? ¿Hasta qué punto están estas iniciativas vinculadas y en línea con los planes de desarrollo regional y/o nacional y, es este un factor de éxito? ¿Qué medidas y prácticas podrían ser adoptadas por las autoridades locales con el fin de aumentar la institucionalización, la réplica y el éxito de estas iniciativas?

Considero que un buen ejemplo de iniciativa a nivel del Ecuador en la incorporación de la migración en la agenda local es la implementada por el Gobierno Autónomo Descentralizado de la Provincia de Pichincha, el mismo que además de incorporar políticas a nivel local ha implementado una Unidad de Gestión de Movilidad Humana con su propio presupuesto que brinda servicios específicos en 4 ejes: Atención y acogida para la protección de derechos (atención psicológica, asesoría jurídica, trabajo social); inclusión económica; incidencia política y participación social, investigación.

Adicionalmente con la incorporación del Proyecto “Acogida, desarrollo y fortalecimiento  sostenible para la inserción social, productiva y cultural de las personas en situación de movilidad humana con especial atención a las más  vulnerables en  la  Provincia de Pichincha”, ha logrado fortalecer las capacidades de la Unidad y ha implementado actividades específicas que apoyan a la política de la Unidad que es generar procesos de dignificación de las personas en situación de movilidad humana para la protección y promoción de sus derechos.

Finalmente a través de la ICMD y el CONGOPE al realizar el diagnostico migratorio de la frontera sur, permitirá replicar las iniciativas ya existentes a nivel de otras localidades e incluso a nivel nacional, permitiendo un mayor impacto en las políticas nacionales.

 

 

1- What does mainstreaming migration into local policy planning mean to you?

Mainstreaming migration into local policy planning in Legazpi City means involving the migrant sector, as stakeholders, in the planning and development process.  Once organized, and fully represented, the migrant sector organization shall be accredited/recognized by the City Government thereby making them members of the Legazpi City Planning and Development Council (LCPDC).  As part of mainstreaming migration, the Social Development Sector of the LCPDC through Resolution No. 02-2014 approved the inclusion of Migration and Development as a sub-sector under the Social Development Sector.  With this development, the migrant sector is given the opportunity to submit their plans and programs and actively participate in the development planning process and ensure that the programs/projects/services related to migration will be presented to the committee for its adoption, inclusion and integration in the Social Development Plans and in the City’s Annual Investment Plan and the Medium Term Public Investment Plan.

 

2- How would you describe the relationship between the cross-cutting approach to M&D and the level and process of decentralization of the state? Within this context, what is the role of decentralized cooperation processes and actors and how can these three elements be reconciled?  

In the Philippines, local governments are now empowered to pass their own legislations through ordinances and resolutions; appropriate their own budget and implement the programs/projects/activities by virtue of decentralization. As mandated, national agencies are responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions. Some mandates of these national governments, especially on the implementation of certain programs/projects/activities are endorsed and/or downloaded to the local government, for implementation.

In Legazpi, strong participation of the barangays, schools, CSOs, church, private sectors and all other sectors of the community are recognized, making them partners in the local development planning process. Programs/projects/activities identified, including updates, by each sector of the community are being included in the Comprehensive Development Plan of the City.

At present, bottom-up participation of stakeholders is encourage by the national government. The barangay, which is the lowest administrative division in the local government, plays a crucial role in the local development process by mobilizing people’s participation in identifying programs/projects/activities that will address issues and concerns in their respective jurisdictions, to include fund sourcing.

3- What are the key measures that are necessary to successfully institutionalise migration into local planning and how can these be implemented? What are the challenges and opportunities associated with these measures?

Key measures to institutionalize migration into local planning inLegazpi:

  1. The Chief Executive is the Migration Champion.
  2. The City Planning and Development Office, PESO or the Local Economic and Investment Promotion Center, are the main actors in the planning process for the institutionalization of migration and development.
  3. Creation of Migration and Development Technical Working Group (M&DTWG)  through an Executive Order as an interim body prior to the approval of a Migration and Development Council as a special body, through enactment of an Ordinance.
  4. Inclusion of Migration and Development as one of standing or special committee in the Sanggunian Panlungsod;
  5. Capacity Building for M&D TWG members, LGU officials and representatives from migrants family   
  6. Establishment of OFW Help Desk.
  7. Estabishment of local migration data by using the CBMS or actual profiling involving the academe and other stakeholders
  8. Organization of the Migrants Family Association in order for them to participate in the local planning process
  9. Creation of a social interpersonal relationship between the members of the M&D TWG and the migrants family members through teambuilding
  10. Institutionalization of Public Employment and Service Office to take charge of the implementation and  management of the programs/projects/services related to migration.
  11. Issuance of memorandum by the Departmemt of the Interior and Local Government to strengthen/sustain the programs/projects/services related to migration, mandating LGU to allocate funds for migration and development like for GAD, DRR and Senior Citizens.
  12. Involvement of the Migrants Family Association in the Barangay Development Council to participate in the barangay planning process. The programs/projects/services identified by the barangays are results of consultation from its constituents through barangay assembly, thus, issues and concerns are all from the grassroots level.

Transition period in the government is the main challenge in mainstreaming migration. But if the above applicable measure/s is/are already present and in place, the new administration will be obliged to support and continue what has been started since Migration and Development has been institutionalized, and with all the programs/projects/activities are listed/integrated already in the Annual Investment Plan and the Medium-term Public Investment Plan. The participation of the CSOs and other stakeholders play a vital role in ensuring that the government is doing or implementing the programs, projects  and activities accordingly.

There are many opportunities to ensure that the programs/projects /activities related to migration will be implemented since Legazpi City recognizes Public-Private-Partnership. Presently, some of the substantial development programs/projects/activities in Legazpi City were implemented with assistance (grants, equity, etc) from the national government, private entities and other organizations/institutions.

4- What examples are there of successful and local authority-led initiatives which aim to institutionalize migration into the local agenda. Have they been replicated in other territories and what were the results? To what extent are these initiatives linked to and in line with regional and/or national development plans and is this a success factor?  What measures and practices could be adopted by local authorities in order to increase the institutionalisation, replicability and success of these initiatives?

The following initiatives were done by the City Government of Legazpi to institutionalize migration and development in the local agenda and are recommended to be replicated by other LGUs:

  1. Inclusion of Migration and Development as a sub-sector under Social Development Sector of the Local Planning and Deveoopment Council;
  2. Creation of  SP Committee on Migration and Development
  3. Involvement of the Social Action Center of the Diocese of Legazpi, a church-based organization, in the organizing the Migrants Family Association and establishment of data base.
  4. Creation of M&D TWG involving LGU officials, department heads, concerned national line-agencies, academe, Civil Society Organziations, land-based Representatives, Sea-based Representative and OFW Entreprenuers Representative.

Other initiatives that the City has identified, but not yet implemented and can be proposed in similar form/localized format, to other LGUs to implement, such as:

  1. “Turuparan” – a yearly one day gathering of balikbayans in Legazpi; to be held every August during the Ibalong Festival
  2. Localization of medical services and PDOS to minimize expenses of would-be OFW
  3. “ULI NA SA LEGAZPI PROGRAM” – This is an Investment Promotion Opportunities to encourage the OFs/OFWs and their families to invest in Legazpi City

Initiatives which our City has learned from other LGUs through knowledge exchange, and were included in the Work Plan:

  1. Establishment of OFW Help Desk which is mandated under RA 10022 (implemented).
  2. Establishment of Migration Resource and Service Center
  3. Annual OFW Family Day – to be held every first week of December
  4. Conduct of Pre-Migration Orientation Seminar (PMOS), Capacity Building, Financial Literacy, Skills/Livelihood Trainings for would-be OFW and their family members
  5. Trainer’s Training for the conduct of PMOS, Family and Income Management, and other trainings

These initiatives can be implemented through coordination/linkages with other national line-agencies, civil society organizations and by engaging the diaspora which would greatly contribute to the development of Legazpi City and other areas. 

1. What does the local migration mainstreaming into policy planning mean to you?

Local migration mainstreaming in the Philippine context is finally recognizing that the so-called big elephant in the room exists, and that local governments have a key role in managing the positive and negative aspects of M&D in their respective communities.  The country is one of the biggest senders of migrant workers worldwide, and in turn is the third biggest recipient of remittances. But for so long, migration has largely been ignored by local governments, believing that it is more the responsibility of the central government and its agencies like POEA, OWWA, DOLE, and CFO.

While some local governments from the top sending regions, like Ilocos Norte, Batangas, Laguna and the other Calabarzon provinces, have pioneered the establishment of migrant resource centers catering to the migrant sector, Naga City's main contribution to the cause of local migration mainstreaming is precisely the understanding of the need for, and its largely successful pioneering effort to, mainstream it in the whole local governance system, starting with the planning process -- which was facilitated by an IOM technical assistance project from 2010-11.

This pioneering exercise was documented in an IOM publication entitled "Mainstreaming Migration into Local Development Plans: Naga City Experience in Focus."

2. How would you describe the relationship between the cross-cutting approach to M&D and the level and process of decentralisation of the state? Within this context, what is the role of decentralized cooperation processes and actors and how can these three elements be reconciled?   

Based on the Philippine context, the relationship is clearly directly proportional, i.e. the more decentralized the state is, the better the chances for successful mainstreaming of local migration policy in the governance processes at the local level.  For instance, during the pre-decentralization years (before the passage of the local autonomy law in 1991), Philippine local governments were primarily preoccupied with other more pressing issues -- like economic, social and infrastructure development -- even if international migration and the so-called Filipino diaspora were already in full swing.  WIth very little resources coming from the central government, as well as the limited powers and authority flowing from the so-called "Imperial Manila," local officials like the provincial government of Camarines Sur at the time were focused on actualizing the 1989 constitutional provision for greater and more meaningful local autonomy law. 

Fast forward to 2011: the 20th year of the Local Government Code of 1991 has clothed Philippine local governments with substantial powers, authority and resources. They have a fixed share of the national income, they can legislate local laws so long as these are consistent with national policies, they can adopt innovative approaches and programs, and they can establish local structures that will support these policies.  It took 20 years, but it is precisely this decentralized environment that allowed Naga in 2011 -- and 15 other cities, provinces and municipalities in the Bicol region under a JMDI 2 grant that sought to scale up the Naga experience in 2014-15 -- to finally mainstream local migration in their respective governance processes.

From our experience, a national policy promoting decentralization provides the overarching framework that allows local governments to continually expand the boundaries of local autonomy (this time, to actualize local migration policies and programs) -- starting with the local planning process (which is defined by national guidelines from central government agencies), and necessarily involving local and national actors and stakeholders of the migrant sector (people participation being a key principle of the 1991 autonomy act).

3. What are the key measures that are necessary to successfully institutionalise migration into local planning and how can these be implemented? What are the challenges and opportunities associated with these measures?

The following are essential based on Naga City's experience:

a. Assess whether a migrant sector exists. Even if the Philippines is a big migrant-sending country, not all localities have a significant migrant sector. If local data and anecdotal evidence confirm its presences, building a local constituency for local migration planning and policymaking becomes more doable.

b. Identify local champions. A champion is one who will advocate the cause of migrants. They can be local beaucrats, as in the case of Naga and Legazpi City, or a member of the national government agency, as in the case of Tabaco City.  They can also be a former migrant who came back to his hometown, has started a successful business but continues to see the need for coordinated local and national action for the sector (as in the case of the vice chair of the Bicol Regional Committee on Migration and Development).

The other key learning is that local champions can be developed. The city mayors of Naga, Legazpi, Sorsogon and Tabaco did not start as M&D champions but grew to become one -- especially after seeing and appreciating the potentials of the Filipino diaspora, including the political benefits.

c. Secure local buy-in. Once someone within the local government unit decides to pay attention to M&D, the next step is to secure management support for the undertaking. In other words, securing local buy-in to the idea. If that “someone” mentioned above is the local chief executive (LCE, ie mayor of the town or city, or governor of the province), well and good. If not, securing local buy-in can be made easier by favorable endorsement at departmental level, especially if it comes from the local administrator.

d. Create a multi-sectoral technical working group. The diverse membership of the TWG not only builds stakeholdership (for instance, in Naga, the academe, church, national agencies, civil society organizations are members, together with both elected and career officials); they can also help in accessing and generating data that will enable the local government to build a profile of the migrant sector.

With the local planning process as entry point, the TWG’s major roles are (i) to gather local migration data;
(ii) to manage consultations and workshops intended to validate data and surface issues facing the migrant sector, and
(iii) identify and prioritize programs, projects and activities for the sector that can be integrated in local plans.

There many ways of organizing the TWG, especially by considering the local context, but the following need be kept in mind: (i)  The TWG should be inclusive. One of its most important functions is to generate local data on migration, and bringing on board agencies and institutions that have access to this data makes this task easier. (ii) The local planning office needs to own, or at least sign on into, the project. As custodian of the local planning process, which is the project’s entry point, the local planning office needs to be engaged and on board as early as possible. (iii) It is a good idea to have the LCE issue an executive order creating the TWG, so that it can have a legal personality.

e. Surface and prioritize sectoral issues. To complement official migration data, it is important to surface issues facing the local migrant sector.  This can be done through workshops and focus group discussions (FGDs). Here, the personal and institutional knowledge of participants (which can be perceptive in nature) are tapped to enrich understanding of the so-called “current realities” and contribute to finding solutions to issues and concerns that surface along the way.

When local migrant issues and development challenges have been brought to the fore, and possible interventions that respond to these issues were identified -- a prioritization exercise should immediately follow to capitalize on built-up momentum. There are many ways to do it, but the use of Dotmocracy modified to suit the occasion is strongly recommended based on our experience.

f. Incorporate local migrant policies and programs in local plans. To facilitate mainstreaming, it is advisable to find ways of incorporating or embedding the priority PPA into existing local programs, whenever feasible. This way, it skirts the need to create migrant-specific programs or projects that may generate resistance or resentment because of the conventional thinking that the sector is better off than the rest.

To formalize these improvements, they will of course go through the mandated approval process, which often requires adoption by the local legislature and approval by the local chief executive.  

Par Yvain BON, point focal de l’ICMD au Sénégal

1) Qu'est-ce que signifie pour vous intégrer la migration dans la planification des politiques locales?

Intégrer la migration dans la planification des politiques locales, c’est d’abord reconnaître que les questions de migration relèvent de la responsabilité de tous, et en particulier des acteurs locaux : tout le monde à un rôle à jouer et une valeur ajoutée à apporter pour que les trajectoires des migrants soient des mouvements positifs qui bénéficient tant aux migrants qu’aux sociétés qu’ils traversent.

La valeur ajoutée de chacun ne peut cependant pas avoir d’impact durable et important sans une coordination, surtout au niveau local. La coordination entre tous les acteurs locaux est donc de ce point de vue essentielle. Ainsi, intégrer la migration dans la planification des politiques locales, cela revient à organiser les contributions des uns et des autres pour le bon déroulement des migrations dans l’intérêt de tous !

2) Comment décririez-vous la relation entre l'approche transversale aux questions de M&D et le niveau et procédé de la décentralisation de l’Etat? Dans ce contexte, quel est le rôle des acteurs et des processus de coopération décentralisée et comment ces trois éléments peuvent-ils être conciliés?

Une des plus grosses difficultés au Sénégal, est que les processus de décentralisation sont relativement neufs. Ainsi les autorités locales et de nouveaux acteurs locaux se voient confier de multiples responsabilités sans avoir les capacités et l’expérience nécessaire. Les questions migratoires constituent donc une des nombreuses compétences et connaissances que les acteurs locaux doivent acquérir. Ces questions de migrations n’ont pas toujours la priorité au milieu de toutes les compétences transférées, mais la décentralisation fournit un cadre propice pour sensibiliser les acteurs des collectivités locales et leur faire prendre conscience du potentiel de leur rôle.  

Les partenariats de coopération décentralisées constituent une bonne opportunité pour les acteurs locaux, notamment les collectivités d’améliorer rapidement leurs capacités à travers les partenariats et échanges avec d’autres collectivités. D’autre part, les partenariats de coopération décentralisée étant souvent initiés par la présence ou l’investissement de la diaspora des collectivités ces échanges du local vers le local deviennent dès le départ multi-acteurs.

Les partenariats de coopération décentralisée sont donc à encourager vivement, car ils permettent de prendre conscience du caractère transversal des enjeux de migration.

3) Quelles sont les mesures clés nécessaires à l’intégration réussie de la migration dans la planification locale et comment ses mesures peuvent-elles être mises en œuvre? Quels sont les défis et opportunités associés à ces mesures?

Le premier pas d’une intégration réussie est d’abord de faire le bilan des forces et faiblesses du territoire, en se posant la question des services accessibles aux migrants, des opportunités économiques et sociales qui se présentent, ainsi que du profil migratoire de la diaspora et de ses ambitions.

Seule la prise en compte de ces aspects permet de prendre des mesures qui répondent vraiment aux besoins et attentes des migrants et acteurs locaux, et surtout de se reposer sur les forces du territoire ou de la collectivité. En effet, des services ou évènements proposés aux migrants ont peu d’avenir s’il n’y a pas moyen de donner suite à leurs attentes, ou si le manque d’opportunités locales et le contexte mettent un frein aux ambitions des collectivités et des acteurs locaux. Par exemple, si le secteur bancaire est défaillant, inaccessible ou fermé aux investissements et projets des migrants, encourager l’investissement de la diaspora n’aura que peu d’impact. Il s’agit donc d’établir d’abord un diagnostic territorial de migration et de développement, et ainsi de s’engager dans des activités pérennes en ayant pleine connaissance des opportunités et des menaces du marché/territoire.

Exemple : une agence régionale de développement (ARD) a mis en place des guichets de la migration pour répondre aux questions et orienter les migrants par rapport à leurs projets et ambitions d’intégration sociale et économique. 90% des questions des migrants concernaient cependant l’accès à des financements ou au secteur bancaire. Peu de contacts préalables avaient été menés par l’ARD auprès des organismes bancaires et programmes de financement pour trouver des solutions ou alternatives convenables répondant à ces difficultés. La confiance et la fréquentation au niveau des guichets par les migrants ne sont donc pas garanties. Cet exemple nous permet de tirer des leçons et ainsi de prendre conscience de l’importance d’effectuer une étude des besoins des migrants préalablement à l’instauration de service auprès migrants.

4) Quels sont les exemples d’initiatives réussies mises en œuvre par les autorités locales visant à institutionnaliser la migration dans l'agenda local? Ses initiatives ont-t-elles été reproduites dans d'autres territoires et quels ont été les résultats? Dans quelle mesure ces initiatives sont-elles liées de façon cohérente avec les plans régionaux et/ou nationaux de développement et est-ce un facteur de réussite? Quelles sont les mesures et les pratiques qui pourraient être adoptées par les autorités locales en vue d'accroître l'institutionnalisation, la reproductibilité et la réussite de ces initiatives?

Cf l’expérience du PAICODELS.

Un des facteurs principaux de réussite est la crédibilité des autorités locales. La mise en place d’initiatives ou programmes d’intégration de la migration aux questions de développement seront de courtes durées si elles n’arrivent pas à convaincre les migrants de leur utilité en un temps assez court. En effet, la diaspora et les acteurs locaux sont souvent attentifs aux mesures prises dans leur direction. Mais si l’annonce de ces mesures ne répond pas à leurs besoins prioritaires ou sont seulement partiellement mis en œuvre, alors le doute s’installe et la confiance et l’implication des migrants n’existeront plus. Les contributions des migrants s’orienteront donc à la marge des activités des collectivités territoriales.

Il y a donc un enjeu certain entre le temps d’action des collectivités territorial assez long et progressif, pour mettre en place de nouveaux services et acquérir de nouvelles compétences, et celui des migrants et de la diaspora qui se mobilisent plus rapidement et n’ont pas la même patience. Il faut donc procéder très prudemment avant d’annoncer des mesures envers les migrants. Les échanges d’expérience entre autorités ou des formations des personnels des collectivités auprès de structures non étatiques par exemple, sont donc un préalable aux actions de prises de contact avec les migrants.

Ex : certains migrants de retour ont fait part à une agence régionale de développement qui mettait en place un fond de soutien, qu’il ne pouvait pas s’engager à le promouvoir auprès de leurs collègues migrants en voyage, tant que le processus n’aurait pas fait ses preuves : la question de la confiance se pose donc et un réel défi à relever. 

3. What examples are there of successful and local authority-led initiatives which aim to institutionalize migration into the local agenda. Have they been replicated in other territories and what were the results? To what extent are these initiatives linked to and in line with regional and/or national development plans and is this a success factor?  What measures and practices could be adopted by local authorities in order to increase the institutionalisation, replicability and success of these initiatives?

Naga's pioneering effort in the Philippines have been scaled up in the province of Pangasinan in the Ilocos, as well as the 15 local government units in the Bicol region. Combined, the diversity of experiences among the Bicol local governments have provided a template for the cabinet-level Commission on Filipinos Overseas (CFO) to expand its effort to encourage other localities all over the country.

Par Nfali Badji, directeur de l’Agence Régionale de Développement de Sedhiou et coordinateur du projet PAICODELS - Senegal

1. Qu'est-ce que signifie pour vous intégrer la migration dans la planification des politiques locales?

Pour nous, intégrer la migration dans la planification des politiques locales signifie prendre en charge les préoccupations des émigrants et immigrants dans les documents de planification de référence élaborés par les collectivités locales (CL). Au Sénégal, nous avons les Plans Départementaux de Développement (PDD) et les Plans de Développement Communal (PDC). Pour chacun de ces documents, il est adossé un Plan d’Investissement ou d’Actions, lequel devrait faire ressortir la part réservée aux Migrants dans le processus de développement économique et social au niveau local.

2. Comment décririez-vous la relation entre l'approche transversale aux questions de M&D et le niveau et procédé de la décentralisation de l’Etat? Dans ce contexte, quel est le rôle des acteurs et des processus de coopération décentralisée et comment ces trois éléments peuvent-ils être conciliés?

Au Sénégal, comme partout ailleurs dans le monde, la problématique de la Migration reste au cœur des préoccupations des plus hautes autorités nationales. Elle constituerait, par ailleurs, une opportunité de développement des Gouvernements locaux, à travers les investissements des Migrants dans les localités d’origine mais aussi et surtout à travers la mise en relation que ces derniers peuvent faire entre les collectivités d’ici et d’ailleurs, à travers la coopération décentralisée. Celle-ci devra même être aujourd’hui la voie à encourager pour une prise en charge soutenable de la question de la migration par les collectivités locales dans les politiques locales de développement.

3. Quelles sont les mesures clés nécessaires à l’intégration réussie de la migration dans la planification locale et comment ses mesures peuvent-elles être mises en œuvre? Quels sont les défis et opportunités associés à ces mesures?

Pour une véritable intégration réussie de la migration dans la planification locale, il faut des préalables, notamment la mise en place d’un Bureau d’appui aux migrants, comme c’est le cas à Sédhiou avec l’Initiative HOM- Help Office For Migrants, conceptualisée et mise en œuvre par l’Agence Régionale de Développement de Sédhiou (ARDS).

Cette Initiative a pour objectifs de:

-      Faciliter le dialogue et instaurer la confiance entre les Migrants et les collectivités locales (CL) d’origine/d’accueil ;

-      Appuyer les CL à prendre en charge les questions de migration dans les documents de planification de référence;

-      Appuyer l’Identification des Migrants et Associations de Migrants ;

-      Faciliter les contacts entre les Migrants et les Organismes ou Projets en charge de la promotion de leurs investissements dans les localités de départ/d’accueil ;

-      Appuyer les Migrants dans la conception, la mise en œuvre et le suivi de projets individuels et communautaires dans les localités d’origine afin de lutter contre toutes formes de migration clandestine ; et

-      Faciliter la mise en réseau et initier des études ou travaux scientifiques sur la migration d’une manière générale, en particulier sur la contribution des migrants dans le développement local, en rapport avec les Universités, Instituts de Recherche et autres Organismes travaillant sur M&D.

A ce titre, une plateforme interactive HOM a été développée, qui permet non seulement aux Migrants de s’y identifier mais de contribuer à distance à l’élaboration des documents de planification de référence des collectivités locales (voir site web ARDS : www.ardsedhiou.org).

A côté de cette Initiative, nous avons mis en place un Fonds d’appui aux initiatives des migrants, dans le cadre de la mise en œuvre du Projet d’Appui aux Initiatives de Co-Développement Economique Local dans la région de Sédhiou (PAICODELS) financé par l’ICMD; lequel fonds permet déjà d’intéresser les Migrants à la chose locale.

Dans cette dynamique d’intéressement à la chose locale et de renforcement du dialogue entre les Migrants, les autorités locales et la société civile, un cadre de coordination et d’échanges est créé. Il s’agit de l’Espace Migration Développement dans la région de Sédhiou (EMDS) qui se veut :

Un cadre de concertation, de dialogue et de réflexion sur les mécanismes de valorisation de la richesse que constitue la diaspora pour l’optimisation du lien migration et développement en région de Sédhiou; 
Un instrument de plaidoyer (sur les problématiques liées à la migration et au développement);
Un  outil de participation et de contribution de la diaspora à l’élaboration des politiques migratoires et stratégies de développement dans la région.

Aujourd’hui, le principal défi qu’il convient de relever, c’est la conception d’approches méthodologiques ou d’outils intelligents pour collecter les données, pour une prise en charge efficiente, inclusive et réelle de la problématique de la Migration dans les documents de planification de référence des CL. Pour ce faire, les Universités, les Instituts de Recherches, les ONG, les structures d’appui conseil des CL devraient être appuyées pour la mise en place et la vulgarisation de ces outils de collecte de données.

4. Quels sont les exemples d’initiatives réussies mises en œuvre par les autorités locales visant à institutionnaliser la migration dans l'agenda local? Ses initiatives ont-t-elles été reproduites dans d'autres territoires et quels ont été les résultats? Dans quelle mesure ces initiatives sont-elles liées de façon cohérente avec les plans régionaux et/ou nationaux de développement et est-ce un facteur de réussite? Quelles sont les mesures et les pratiques qui pourraient être adoptées par les autorités locales en vue d'accroître l'institutionnalisation, la reproductibilité et la réussite de ces initiatives?

Pour nous, il s’agit de l’Initiative HOM, avec la particularité d’être conçue et mise en œuvre par une structure d’appui technique aux autorités locales mais qui est largement soutenue par celles-ci.

En perspective, il est prévu de la vulgariser cette initiative dans toute la région naturelle de la Casamance, si les moyens ou ressources suivent.

Nfaly BADJI, Directeur ARDS,

Chef de Projet PAICODELS – Sédhiou

SENEGAL

 

Par Birame Ndiaye, coordinateur du GRDR au niveau de l’Agence Régionale de Développement de Sedhiou – projet PAICODELS

1.       Qu'est-ce que signifie pour vous intégrer la migration dans la planification des politiques locales?

Intégrer la migration dans la planification des politiques locales, c’est :

-          Considérer que les migrants sont des citoyens à part entière et par conséquent, ils doivent être consulté au même titre que les citoyens résidents pour la définition des orientations de développement de la cité.

-          Mais également leurs préoccupations doivent interpeller les autorités locales et les intéresser particulièrement au même titre que les préoccupations des citoyens résidents.

-          Faire participer les migrants dans le diagnostic territorial en vue de prendre en compte leurs préoccupations et les considérer comme des partenaires d’exécution des actions planifiées dans le but de valoriser au mieux leurs contributions.

La finalité est que l’apport des migrants et les initiatives qu’ils portent s’inscrivent dans une planification globale de la collectivité et que les plans locaux de développement soient un cadre d’expression des besoins spécifiques des migrants conformément aux prérogatives des autorités locales en ce qui concerne le lien migration et développement.

2.       Comment décririez-vous la relation entre l'approche transversale aux questions de M&D et le niveau et procédé de la décentralisation de l’Etat? Dans ce contexte, quel est le rôle des acteurs et des processus de coopération décentralisée et comment ces trois éléments peuvent-ils être conciliés?

Migration, développement et coopération décentralisée sont intrinsèquement liés. Les politiques de l’Etat sénégalais allant dans le sens d’une meilleure responsabilisation des CL dans la mobilisation des ressources et le management local. Les acteurs principaux sont au nombre trois.

-          L’Etat qui balise le terrain en mettant en place un cadre juridique favorable à l’établissement de partenariats décentralisés,

-          Les migrants qui jouent un rôle important dans la mise en relations entre collectivités d’origine et collectivités d’accueil,

-          Les collectivités locales qui permettent d’intégrer les actions collectives entreprises dans une problématique de développement territorial à travers des enjeux de territoires partagés.

Dans ce cadre, il est important que les protocoles de coopération décentralisée soient signés entre autorités des deux collectivités locales. Sans quoi, l’expérience a montrer qu’une coopération engageant seulement une association de migrants ressortissant d’une localité donnée avec une collectivité du Nord a toujours était source de conflits entre migrants et autorités locales et a souvent comme conséquence des projets hors plan et peux soucieux des politiques et normes sectorielles de développement en vigueur.

3.       Quelles sont les mesures clés nécessaires à l’intégration réussie de la migration dans la planification locale et comment ses mesures peuvent-elles être mises en œuvre? Quels sont les défis et opportunités associés à ces mesures?

¨       Connaitre les différentes problématiques de développement liées à la migration (immigration, transit, émigration, intégration dans le territoire d’accueil, réinsertion social post-retour, la question du genre, des droits sociaux des migrants au territoire d’accueil) en vue de tracer les voies et moyens de les intégrer dans la réflexion et d’intéresser les migrants.

¨       Identifier et prendre connaissance avec les migrants influents et réseaux d’associations de migrants capables de porter une représentation crédible et inclusive de la diaspora dans le processus de conception et de mise en œuvre des politiques locales.

¨       Trouver les voies et moyens de faire participer les migrants en amont et en aval du processus de conception et de mise en œuvre des politiques locales.  Cela peut passer par des consultations par voie électronique, des missions d’acteurs sur le double espace où la participation des instances représentatives des migrants sur territoire  (associations relais, comité de jumelage/développement, espace migration, migrants en vacance ou de retour….

 

4. Quels sont les exemples d’initiatives réussies mises en œuvre par les autorités locales visant à institutionnaliser la migration dans l'agenda local? Ses initiatives ont-t-elles été reproduites dans d'autres territoires et quels ont été les résultats? Dans quelle mesure ces initiatives sont-elles liées de façon cohérente avec les plans régionaux et/ou nationaux de développement et est-ce un facteur de réussite? Quelles sont les mesures et les pratiques qui pourraient être adoptées par les autorités locales en vue d'accroître l'institutionnalisation, la reproductibilité et la réussite de ces initiatives?

Parmi les expériences réussies, on peut citer les « missions double espace, à la rencontre des migrant et de leur partenaires pour une coopération de territoire à territoire » conduites depuis quelques années par le Grdr au profit des collectivités locales du bassin du fleuve Sénégal (Sénégal, Mali et Mauritanie). Ces missions permettaient d’accompagner quelque maire à aller présenter les résultats définitive de son processus de planification aux migrants et à leur partenaire de coopération décentralisée.  Cette mission qui couronne un processus de concertation sur le double espace par l’intermédiaire de ciber-conférences permettant souvent aux maires et à leurs migrants de s’entendre sur les actions collectives à fiancer et à mobiliser surtout des partenaires de coopération décentralisée.

 

Plus d’informations, lire le « Guide d’organisation d’une mission double espace , à la rencontre des migrant et de leur partenaires pour une coopération de territoire à territoire » téléchargeable sur le site www.grdr.org

1. ¿Qué significa para usted integrar la migración en la planificación de las políticas local

Integrar la migración en la planificación de las políticas locales significa tener un cuadro bien claro de cuales podrán ser las actividades a realizar considerando las necesidades de todos los ciudadanos que se encuentran a habitar en un mismo país. Cuando hablamos de migración toca tener en consideración que cada categoría migratoria tendrá exigencias específicas y comunes a otras y por otro lado es a su vez importante conocer cuál es la visión del mismo tejido social antes el “otro”.

 

2. ¿Cómo describiría la relación entre el enfoque transversal de M&D y el nivel del proceso de descentralización del Estado? En este contexto, ¿cuál es el papel de los actores y de los procesos de cooperación descentralizada y cómo se pueden reconciliar estos tres elementos?

La relación entre el enfoque transversal de M&D y el nivel del proceso de descentralización está generando resultados inesperados que resultan de gran interés para toda la población directamente o indirectamente involucrada. Indudablemente la mirada de descentralización permite tener más clara cuál puede ser la intervención específica de realizar con las personas en situación de movilidad humana. El papel de los actores en este caso es trabajar con mayor sensibilidad a temáticas transversales que son de interés de la población que deben ayudar. Trabajar de forma coordinada y mediante alianzas con el objetivo de formar una única red de apoyo podría ser la clave para ayudar de forma concreta  todos los ciudadanos que se encuentran en un contexto de movilidad humana.

3.¿Cuáles son las principales medidas que son necesarias para incorporar con éxito la migración en la planificación local y cómo pueden aplicarse? ¿Cuáles son los retos y las oportunidades asociadas a estas medidas?

Ante todo sería muy necesario trabajar con profesionales que tengan un adecuada formación en el tema de movilidad humana y la sensibilidad necesaria para ayudar el próximo. El análisis de las necesidades y su contexto histórico podrán brindar una primera mirada a las acciones a realizar y luego tener clara la cantidad de actores que podrán brindar apoyo en las diferentes fases, contar con un presupuesto idóneo e identificar prioridades mediante un plan de acción que sea garantista de derechos humanos. Dar seguimiento y construir un trabajo del día a día que sea inclusivo y participativo entre los diferentes actores. El gran reto es trabajar de forma coordinada sin replicar ayudas ni re victimizar pero respondiendo a las necesidades de cuantos buscan apoyo.

4. ¿Qué ejemplos existen de iniciativas exitosas lideradas por las autoridades locales que tienen como objetivo incorporar la migración en la agenda local? ¿Han sido replicadas en otros territorios y cuáles fueron los resultados? ¿Hasta qué punto están estas iniciativas vinculadas y en línea con los planes de desarrollo regional y/o nacional y, es este un factor de éxito? ¿Qué medidas y prácticas podrían ser adoptadas por las autoridades locales con el fin de aumentar la institucionalización, la réplica y el éxito de estas iniciativas?

Un ejemplo de iniciativa exitosa es la del Gobierno Autónomo Descentralizado de la Provincia de Pichincha que ha implementado a través de la UGMH (Unidad de Gestión de Movilidad Humana) un modelo que brinda asistencia integral a las personas que se encuentran en situación de movilidad humana. La Unidad de Gestión de Movilidad Humana se enfoca en 4 ejes:

-          Atención y acogida para la protección de derechos (atención psicológica, asesoría jurídica, trabajo social);

-          Inclusión económica;

-          Incidencia política y participación social,

-          Investigación.

Al momento hay mucho interés en replicar el modelo de la Unidad de Gestión de movilidad humana pero lastimosamente por el momento no existe ninguna replica. La gran ventaja es que por medio de ICMD y CONGOPE existe la disponibilidad en compartir y replicar la experiencia.

APORTES DE ADILIA EVA SOLIS

  • ¿Qué significa para usted integrar la migración en la planificación de las políticas locales?

Cuando se habla a planificación local,  se está refiriendo al proceso de organización y dirección de los recursos internos y externos para alcanzar metas estratégicas comunes y de interés para una localidad.    La planificación tanto local, regional como nacional, se sustenta en enfoques, principios y ejes estratégicos que orientan la toma de decisiones y las prioridades que habrán de establecerse.  Dicho lo anterior, integrar la migración en esa planificación significa entonces una toma de posición política ante todo.  Es decir, la migración es parte de las prioridades de la gestión local, además  es correspondiente con los enfoques y principios.    Integrar la migración en la planificación de las políticas locales implica:

1.       Considerar a las personas que participan de los diferentes flujos migratorios, como sujetos de derechos en primer lugar, como ciudadanos (conceptualizado más allá de ser o no nacional de un país), como agentes sociales del desarrollo social, cultural y económico.

2.       Visibilizar, nombrar.  Lo que no se nombra, no existe.  Así, la migración si no se visibiliza en acciones, planes específicos, se diluye y no ocurre una incorporación efectiva, pues en el fondo es una forma implícita y sutil de discriminar.

3.       Incorporar de manera activa a la población migrante en los procesos de discusión, planificación, seguimiento y evaluación de las políticas y los planes locales.  Son ACTORES no MENDIGOS.

4.       Identificar todos los factores que puedan estar limitando el pleno disfrute de los derechos de las personas migrantes, para establecer acciones para superar esas limitaciones, y asignarles recursos propios (no esperar que sea la cooperación internacional la que los proporcione).

5.       Diseñar un conjunto de medidas afirmativas para que las personas migrantes accedan a bienes y servicios en igualdad de condiciones.

6.       Promover uso responsable de las remesas.

7.       Políticas o acciones de acción socio educativas y psicosociales a nivel comunitario para el fortalecimiento y empoderamiento de la población y sus familias en el entorno comunitario.

       ¿Cómo describiría la relación entre el enfoque transversal de M&D y el nivel del proceso de descentralización del Estado? En este contexto, ¿cuál es el papel de los actores y de los procesos de cooperación descentralizada y cómo se pueden reconciliar estos tres elementos?

La formulación de esta pregunta está confusa, al menos para mí.  De lo que supongo preguntan,  el tema de la descentralización es complejo y no es tan fácil.  La descentralización supone descentralizar los recursos también, y no siempre es así.   M&D es posible a nivel local, y en el plano nacional debe ser incorporado en los planes nacionales de desarrollo, que en Costa Rica se realiza cada cuatro años con el cambio de gobierno.  

 En mi opinión, lo efectivo  y de impacto es la cooperación descentralizada, de lo contrario, más de la mitad de los recursos se quedan en la administración central y se encarece el proyecto, y al beneficiario final le llega muy poco, o bien los productos finales tienen poco financiamiento.  El actor clave para articular es el gobierno local, y no me refiero precisamente a las municipalidades, sino a las distintas formas en cómo se expresa la gobernanza a nivel local.  La fórmula de organización social o de la sociedad civil en alianza con el gobierno local, es una buena práctica.

         ¿Cuáles son las principales medidas que son necesarias para incorporar con éxito la migración en la planificación local y cómo pueden aplicarse? ¿Cuáles son los retos y las oportunidades asociadas a estas medidas?

  1. Debe realizar un proceso de formación basada en la evidencia, en el estudio de casos exitosos, dirigido a funcionarios, funcionarias y tomadores de decisión. 
  2. Derribar mitos, prejuicios y  conductas discriminatorias.
  3. Incorporar como ACTOR a la población migrante (niñez, juventudes, mujeres, trabajadores y trabajadoras) en todo el proceso.
  4. Debe incorporarse en la estrategia de desarrollo humano, como un enfoque y una acción estratégica. Esto debe articularse con los Ministerios de Planificación, para que el tema deje de verse como un tema de caridad o de “humanidad”, para pasar a un tema de desarrollo  y  de participación,
  5. Debe ser una estrategia de desarrollo, y no una acción aislada. Debe articularse a todo el proceso local de desarrollo, entendiendo desarrollo de una manera integral, no al desarrollo económico  únicamente, por lo que debe de trascender la mirada reduccionista que consideran que migración y desarrollo es igual a remesas.

 ¿Qué ejemplos existen de iniciativas exitosas lideradas por las autoridades locales que tienen como objetivo incorporar la migración en la agenda local? ¿Han sido replicadas en otros territorios y cuáles fueron los resultados? ¿Hasta qué punto están estas iniciativas vinculadas y en línea con los planes de desarrollo regional y/o nacional y, es este un factor de éxito? ¿Qué medidas y prácticas podrían ser adoptadas por las autoridades locales con el fin de aumentar la institucionalización, la réplica y el éxito de estas iniciativas?

En los ejemplos que conozco,  un elemento  fundamental que ha hecho mover la agenda local para que incorpore a la migración, ha sido la presión desde la sociedad civil y de las organizaciones de la población migrante.    Las iniciativas son locales y no están en línea con los planes de desarrollo nacional. Esto refiriéndome al caso de Costa Rica.  Es importante la incidencia política, el cabildeo de las autoridades locales y la sociedad civil ante los tomadores de decisión con el fin de institucionalizar procesos presentando resultados y modelos que pueden ser replicados.   Tenemos el caso concreto de el Modelo de Gestión de la Movilidad transfronteriza de Upala, es un resultado de la sistematización y reflexión de una práctica local, llevada como propuesta ante una instancia de toma de decisión al más alto nivel, que es incorporada en una política pública.   A pesar de todo ello, el gobierno  de turno no le da el respaldo necesario para su concreción.  Lo que quiero decir es que factores políticos son importantes de considerar, pues no es suficiente la institucionalización.

E-discussion on Mainstreaming Migration into Local Policy Planning

Inputs to the Four Questions Posited:

1. What does mainstreaming migration into local policy planning mean to you?

• Mainstreaming migration and development at the local governmental level is a process that necessitates taking several steps over a given period of time. It involves several capacity building programs and trainings that will involve local stakeholders, especially to the local governments, to realize the importance of considering migration in their agenda. It’s about securing commitment by the local government to ‘own’ M and D and manifesting its commitment by establishing Technical Working Group that will execute the plan. It’s also issuing the necessary legislation/decree to provide legal basis and subsequent funding for it to take off.

• As a result, it is expected that Migration and Development related provisions are incorporated in the local plans. This will pave the way for the provision of services, programs and projects that will be undertaken by the local government (with a specific unit tasked to implement it) on a regular basis.

2. How would you describe the relationship between the cross-cutting approach to M&D and the level and process of decentralisation of the state? Within this context, what is the role of decentralized cooperation processes and actors and how can these three elements be reconciled?

• In the Philippine context, migration is always viewed as a national government concern more than a local one. We are changing this perception over time with several local mainstreaming projects we did in the past (like the EU AENEAS MAPID project) and in the present (JMDI II and other similar non JMDI funded projects).

• With the local autonomy enjoyed by local governments, it is assumed that they can better respond to the peculiar needs of their respective localities. National government agencies have traditionally cooperated with local governments by being cordial and respectful of each other’s conditions and viewing local governments as partners, not passive recipients, of national government in undertaking projects initiated by the latter.

3. What are the key measures that are necessary to successfully institutionalise migration into local planning and how can these be implemented? What are the challenges and opportunities associated with these measures?

• Secure management support or local ‘buy-in’ to the idea of M and D. That management is the governor or mayor or local chief executive.

• Create a team or a technical working group (TWG) with members from the different units of the local government to include those from the relevant national government agencies working on migration (for technical assistance). If there’s a local planning office, it is critical that they are included to spearhead it or be a member.

• It is better to have a local order/legislation creating the TWG so that it can have a legal personality. This will also be the precursor in legislating for an M and D program – vital in securing funding to jumpstart rolling out programs and services.

• Data. No one can argue with numbers. This is a must that should be addressed by the TWG.

• Capacity building trainings. This is imperative for the LGU, the TWG, the focal unit and various stakeholders to understand M and D, how to mainstream it, how to gather data and come up with the programs and services.

• Consultation meetings should also be undertaken to get the views of other stakeholders outside the local government such as migrant related civil society, banks, the academe etc.,

• Challenges abound such as the perennial issue of funding, getting the right people within the LGU to implement M and D, political will (since elections are a regular fare and might involve change in leadership).

• Opportunities are enormous for networking with fellow local government, technical assistance from the local government and even grants from multilateral institutions. Of course, possible enduring partnership with the migrants themselves.

4. What examples are there of successful and local authority-led initiatives which aim to institutionalize migration into the local agenda? Have they been replicated in other territories and what were the results? To what extent are these initiatives linked to and in line with regional and/or national development plans and is this a success factor? What measures and practices could be adopted by local authorities in order to increase the institutionalisation, replicability and success of these initiatives?

• The northern province of Pangasinan in the Philippines have integrated migration into its local development plan and its story have been shared with other local government units such as Naga City in the Bicol region (southern Luzon).

• The migration and development related provisions contained in the local development plan of the province of Pangasinan is in accordance with the national development plan.

• In order to increase the institutionalization, other local governments would adopt it if they see in practice that it is successful. Also the need to solicit cooperation from federation or association of local governments or leagues of cities and municipalities. In the Philippines, we have the following organizations of local governments – League of Municipalities, League of Cities, League of Provinces, and the Union of Local Authorities in the PH.

• Other interested local governments can learn by doing it guided or mentored by other local governments that are doing it.